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PROCEEDINGS 





Vol. 19, 1996 




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Replacement Monument of "An Unknown Brother" 
Jordan Station, Ontario 



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R.W.Bro. Larry J. Hostine, Worshipful Master 
R.R. #3, Wheatley, Ontario NOP 2P0 

V.W.Bro. Samuel Forsythe, Secretary 

752 Hampton Court, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3M3 

(905) 831 -2076 Fax (905) 831 -7815 




W.Bro. JOHN F. SUTHERLAND, Editor 

20 Fairview Crescent, Woodstock, Ontario N4S 6L1 

(519) 537-2927 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Subject Page 

The Worshipful Master 261 

Annual Heritage Lodge Banquet Address 
Understanding Symbolism 

By Charles Maier, M.A. 263 

The Role of the Masonic Lodge in the Life 
of Small Communities in Ontario in the 1860's 

By W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 269 

Irish Freemasonry - According to Bro. Chetwodc Crawley 

By R.W.Bro. John Storey 287 

Memorial Service: R.W.Bro. Edgar Gordon Burton 304 

Memorial Service: R.W.Bro. Michael George Brellisford 306 

Our Departed Brethren 308 

The Heritage Lodge Officers, Committees, Past Masters 310 



DISCLAIMER 

The contributors to these Proceedings are alone 

responsible (or the opinions expressed and also 

for the accuracy of the statements made therein, 

and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730 G.R.C. 



Please note that all papers presented to the Lodge will be printed in 
full in The Heritage Lodge Proceedings in November each year. 

The oral presentation at our meetings 
will be restricted to 20 minutes. 

Due to the distance many of our members travel to attend 

it is only right that they be enabled to proceed home at a 

reasonable hour after enjoying the fellowship of their Lodge. 



260 




R.W.Bro. LARRY J. HOSTINE, W.M. 

May I take this opportunity to express my appreciation to the 
Members of The Heritage Lodge No. 730 for electing me as the 
Worshipful Master and supporting the Lodge during the past year. The 
Officers and Committee Members who have performed their duties 
without question deserve heartfelt thanks. 

A very special thank-you must go to our Secretary, V.W.Bro. Sam 
Forsythe, for his generous help in the myriad matters that come before 
die Lodge and the excellent preparation of our Summons for each 
meeting. His assistance in stepping in and chairing the Annual Banquet 
after the unfortunate demise of R.W.Bro. Ted Burton ensured the 
success diat it was and, I am sure, was appreciated by all. 



261 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

The Annual Banquet was enjoyed by 225, who were treated to an 
excellent paper on Heraldry by Mr. Charles Maier, Athabaska Herald. 

On a disappointing note, the March meeting which was scheduled 
to be hosted by St. David's Lodge No. 302 in St. Thomas was cancelled 
due to a very bad winter storm that covered most of Ontario. The paper, 
"Dr. Charles Duncombe, His Life and Times" which was to be given 
will be presented at our Annual Banquet in 1997. 

On May 12th, 1996, some 80 members of The Heritage Lodge 
gathered at Jordan Station to dedicate a new replacement gravestone 
monument to "An Unknown Brother". This ceremony culminated over 
18 months of planning by W.Bro. Robert J.L. Butler (a Charter Member 
of The Heritage Lodge) and the various associations and Lodges of 
Niagara District "A". He was supported by R.W.Bro. James E. James, 
P.D.D.G.M. and an active committee of W.Bro. Glenn Dean, W.Bro. 
John Furedi, W.Bro. Norman Home, R.W.Bro. E. Warren Lay, 
R.W.Bro. Thomas E. Lewis, V.W.Bro. Robert Macara and W.Bro. Peter 
Edmonds ~ with R.W.Bro. Edmund Ralph and R.W. Bro. Albert Barker 
as The Heritage Lodge liaison members. 

For our May meeting we travelled to Leamington, Ontario, to be 
hosted by Leamington Lodge No. 290. There a paper was delivered by 
our own Junior Warden, W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow, titled "The Role of 
die Masonic Lodge in die Life of Small Communities in Ontario in the 
1860's". Several members of the Erie District spoke on the influence 
Masonry had in their area in die 1860's. 

Our September meeting was the election of officers for 1997 when 
we received a lengthy, but interesting, paper on Irish Masonry, by 
R.W.Bro. John Storey, The Heritage Lodge Librarian. 

During the year The Heritage Lodge was saddened by deaths of two 
of our Officers in the persons of R.W.Bro. Ted Burton and R.W.Bro. 
Mike Brellisford, our Junior Deacon and Junior Steward, respectively. 
Memoriums to our Brethren may be found on Pages 317 to 320 of diese 
Proceedings. Their memories we cherish. 

This, briefly, represents an account of my stewardship of The 
Heritage Lodge No. 730 during 1996. I trust it will meet with your 
approval. 

Once again I would like to thank all die Members of this Lodge, 
and the Lodges that hosted The Heritage Lodge, for their support, 
dedication and hospitality. Finally, I pledge my support to our next 
Worshipful Master and The Heritage Lodge. 

Sincerely and fraternally, 
Larry J. Hostine, W.M. 



262 



UNDERSTANDING 
SYMBOLISM 

by CHARLES MAIER, M.A. 
Athabaska Herald, Rideau Hall, Ottawa 

The Heritage Lodge Annual Banquet 

Scarborough Masonic Temple 

January 30, 1996 



Right Worshipful Brother Larry Hostine and members of The 
Heritage Lodge No. 730. First let me thank Right Worshipful Brother 
Robert Throop for that kind introduction. I believe I have been very 
fortunate to have been given the opportunity to work in the office of our 
Governor General, and play a role in moulding the symbols which help 
to define us as a nation. 

I want to say how much I appreciate your invitation to speak to you 
this evening. It is good to have a chance to share with you some of my 
thoughts on the subject of symbolism that have slowly crystallized for 
me over the years that I have worked as a herald. But I also confess to 
feeling somewhat anxious about presenting these ideas to a group such 
as yourselves, who I look to as operating within a framework of ritual 
and symbolism that has been refined by centuries of usage, and which 
for each of you in an individual sense has been honed by years of 
practice, and applied through the offering of countless hours of 
charitable work. 

The more I work in the field of symbolism, the more I am struck 
by the extent to which we human beings are creatures that operate 
almost entirely within frameworks of symbols. Even the gratification of 
our most basic bodily needs can become something that can operate at 
the highest symbolic level. All of us could have satisfied our need for 
food by staying home tonight, going to die fridge, pulling out a TV 
dinner, plopping it in the microwave and consuming it as a purely 
utilitarian act. However, we have chosen not to do dus tonight. In our 
case we have perliaps elected to make a more sophisticated symbolical 
statement than most by virtue of where we have chosen to eat, with 
whom we are eating, how we have dressed, and even what we are 
eating. How we have chosen to consume this dinner tells us much about 
how we regard ourselves, how others regard us, and what values are 
important to us. 



263 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

I see this aspect of our meal tonight as a true symbol. On the 
surface we are merely satisfying our appetite for food, but at another 
level, we are telling ourselves, and anyone who shares an understanding 
of the forms we are using, that we care about one another, we care 
about the history of masonry, and the important work that work 
Masonry has done over the centuries. Our meal together has been 
thoughtfully organized, and tastefully presented without being 
ostentatious; qualities that I believe are shared by the best symbols. 

Food sustains us physically, but how we choose to consume it also 
sustains us, socially, emotionally and spiritually. Christ himself 
reminded us that man shall not live by bread alone, and, of course, the 
central element in Christian liturgy consists of a symbolic meal. You 
see how quickly we humans move from the physical to the metaphysical 
through our use of symbols and ceremonial. 

In his pioneering work, the famous Swiss analytical psychologist, 
Carl Jung, gave much thought to these issues and the sense in which 
symbols worked not only to define our individual psyche but our 
common humanity as well. Jung compared the world of symbol, or 
archetype as he preferred to refer to it, to the topography of a mythical 
volcanic landscape. Boiling away deep inside the earth he saw the 
seething molten lava which was common to all humanity. But as one 
moved closer to the surface of the earth, and ultimately moved up 
towards the peak of each volcanic mountain, he visualized the layering 
of a wide variety of distinct geological strata supporting each mountain 
peak. These strata he related to the archetypes which formed the distinct 
consciousness of each individual. At the lower level or base of the 
mountain lay strata or archetypes that were quite broadly understood, 
but the higher up one moved, the more distinct were the shared 
concepts, as each of us takes on our individual qualities. The lower 
strata he associated with the symbols and conventions common to a 
continent or a nationality. Higher up are those of region, community, 
clan and family. Yet at the pinnacle of the volcano he visualized the 
essential quality of life boiling out like lava from a core linking each 
individual to the great lava sea that seethed at the centre of all human 
experience, binding us through mutual interdependence. 

I find Jung's concept a most striking and challenging metaphor, as 
I believe that he is reminding us that the essence of our existence goes 
beyond symbols, connecting with an indefinable, spiritual force that all 
of us share. However, it does not take much imagination to picture how 
boring the earth would be today if volcanic activity never amounted to 
anything more than a few holes scattered around the globe out of which 



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THE HERITAGE LODGE ANNUAL BANQUET - 1996 

had splashed the odd dribble of undirected lava from time to time. The 
various strata made up of nationality, language, religion, and family, 
all give us layers of symbols and levels of understanding that can 
contain and direct the stream of life within us and contain the boiling 
lava within a column that can give form and meaning to life, and take 
us to new heights as we develop a base of symbols and concepts that 
we are fortunate enough to hold in common and share with others. It 
is symbols that give us the ability to express the vitality we possess. 

In my work as a herald, I find it a continual struggle to seek ways 
in which I can develop symbols that get as close to that volcanic core 
as possible, and which can represent the individuality of the recipient, 
and still be understood by as wide a cross-section of humanity using as 
few cultural filters as possible. 

In doing this I am particularly fortunate, because the medium in 
which I work predates widespread literacy, and was meant to be im- 
mediately understood by all levels of society, and most European and 
some Middle Eastern nationalities. 

European heraldry is understood to trace its origins to the medieval 
field of battle where knights encased in armour needed to decorate their 
shields and surcoats with distinctive symbols in order to tell friend from 
foe in the heat of conflict. The resulting coats of arms were granted as 
an honour by the sovereign as a way of providing recognition to those 
who merited this distinction in either military or civil life. Like most 
forms of property in the middle ages, a coat of arms descended 
according to the principle of primogeniture to successive generations. 
Municipal corporations, religious and educational institutions also 
embraced heraldry as a kind of symbolic shorthand for expressing what 
we would today call their visual identity. 

I believe that much of the fascination of heraldry stems from the 
fact that it was born in the crucible of the middle ages, a period that 
saw the flowering of the philosophical insights of the ecclesiastical 
scholars who weighed and debated the precise nature of the relationsliip 
between the physical symbol and ultimate reality. 

The notion that we require symbols to identify families and other 
phenomena takes us back down through the strata of civilization very 
close to the molten lava at the foundation of our humanity. The use of 
graphic elements to honour and lend identity, cohesion and pride to 
particular genetic lines is a near universal practice. Most Canadians are 
familiar with the magnificent totem figures of our West Coast native 
people. Each of the twelve tribes of Israel had their symbol. The 
Japanese Samurai families also employed a complex system of stylized 



265 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

graphic motifs known as Mons that are similar in many respects to 
European heraldry, and the striped and checked garments worn by 
various lines of Celts warriors was noted by the ancient Romans. 

Yet, as we work our way up the various mountainsides that 
constitutes the ranges of symbols and metaphors that we use daily to 
communicate our needs, hopes and dreams, we inevitably find that these 
root us to our communities and the activities, ceremonies and traditions 
that have been passed down to us, and which have become meaningful 
to us in our experience of life. 

Carl Jung lived through two World Wars and was all too familiar 
with the horrific atrocities that could be committed and often 'excused' 
in the name of race, language, or the time honoured symbols of various 
nationalisms, and he drew an important distinction between emblems 
and symbols. An emblem he saw as something which represented a 
known fact. He contrasted this with a true symbol, which he believed 
was the best expression obtainable in a particular time for something 
that is essentially unknown. A true symbol he maintained, can never be 
fully understood. There is always something of the spiritual about a true 
symbol. It derives from that central core of shared human experience 
winch Jung associated with the molten lava, he saw running through 
the heart of the earth, revealing itself in all of our lives. 

I believe Canada's national symbols fall by and large within this 
definition, and I would like to share with you some very personal 
observations of my own on just two of these which have been very 
effective tools in the past in giving identity to our country and her 
citizens, and I refer to the monarchy and the maple leaf. 

First regarding the monarchy, my experience has been that we are 
dealing with an ancient, international, and very deep rooted symbol and 
institution. I have visited and worked in many Commonwealth countries, 
and to me it has seemed that the notion of die monarchy has been 
interpreted to mean something rather different in each place, depending 
on the particular social, political and historical forces that have defined 
the national psyche of each country. My experiences in Belize and 
Gibraltar come to mind, as well as Jamaica and the tiny Turks and 
Caicos Islands in the Caribbean. I have also spent considerable time in 
Britain and Australia. 

In some of these places the Crown has come to symbolize a kind 
of big brother ally against a hostile, sometimes Spanish speaking, 
Goliath on the doorstep. In other places the monarchy may be vaguely 
associated with a traditional planter class, but also with the abolition of 
slavery and a commitment to the rule of law and the freedom of the 



266 



THE HERITAGE LODGE ANNUAL BANQUET - 1996 

individual. In other places it is associated with an outdated class system, 
or with a system of transporting convicts, or with a dominant inter- 
national role for Britain which it has been impossible to maintain given 
changes in international conditions. 

And then there is the Royal Family itself besieged by a by a small 
army of journalists and photographers recording their every move, along 
with all that entails. 

However, I believe Canada's relationship with the monarchy has 
been a relatively healthy one, and that we have much to contribute to 
the evolving role that the Royal Family will play in the national affairs 
of this and other countries, and again I believe much of this can be 
traced back through our history. 

hi many ways the place of the monarchy in our national life was 
determined by the first major influx of settlers who were strongly 
committed to this institution, and of course I refer to the United Empire 
Loyalists. These were not in most cases overbearing English aristocrats, 
longing for home, nor were they convicted criminals nursing a grudge 
against authority. Rather they were displaced, often very egalitarian 
Americans. In spite of any negative opinions they might have held of 
British diplomacy, taxation policy or trading practices, they were 
strongly of the opinion that the concept of monarchy, along with the 
continuity, the rule of law and of parliamentary institutions that went 
with it, was a better way to organize a state than what they had 
experienced at the hands of the mobs that in many cases had taken 
control of their former communities. For them the person of the 
monarch was incidental. In fact die King was certifiably insane at the 
time that some of them arrived in this country. This, however did not 
detract from the validity of the monarchy as an institution that could 
help create a better society in this part of the continent, a dream that has 
never been lost. 

This wonderful tradition has helped us to build national institutions 
that draw on the best that the concept of monarchy can lend to our 
national life. The development of the office of die Governor General, 
of our Lieutenant-Governors, of a national honours system and our 
national flag, have flowed from this and have contributed to the notion 
of a Canadian monarchy lending stability and dignity to the ceremonial 
life of the country. 

Which brings us to the maple leaf, that beautiful symbol par 
excellence that is so clearly rooted in the nature of Canada both in a 
physical and a metaphorical sense. 

People often ask me why there are three maple leaves that appear 



267 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

on the Canadian, Ontario and Quebec Coats of Arms. I have heard a 
number of explanations for this. Some say there is one for the English, 
one for the French, and another for the rest of us. Some say the third 
one is for the Native People. It has been suggested that in the middle 
ages things like leaves were arranged in groups of three for the Father, 
Son and Holy Ghost. I would be glad to accept all or none of the above 
explanations. To me, I find three leaves aesdietically pleasing, and if 
these leaves are more pleasing to any of you because of some 
underlying reason, all the better. But remember that a true symbol can 
never be fully understood. It must remain flexible and capable of having 
new levels of meaning and relevance entrusted to it as it is passed on 
to future generations. Much of the strength of our national symbols has 
been their long association with our evolution as a peaceable, tolerant, 
law abiding society, along with our outstanding international record of 
assisting other nations and peoples in need. 

One of the things that I understand about the symbolic life that you 
undertake as Masons is that you seek to provide a ritual framework that 
is capable of bringing together people from all religions, walks of life 
and social classes, and that through the symbols and ritual of Masonry 
you endeavour to point the way towards the eternal mystery that lies at 
the core the human spirit. 

I know also from the many good works for which you are so justly 
famous that Masonry seeks to harness the great energies that its ritual 
and symbolism are capable of generating, to improve the lives of those 
less fortunate. Many would say that the value of a symbol must be 
judged by the results that flow from the concepts for which it stands. 

I know this Heritage Lodge has done much to chronicle the many 
accomplishments of Masonry, and its long history of promoting 
understanding, brotherhood and mutual assistance. I commend you for 
this, and I wish you every success as you record and perpetuate the rich 
symbolism and humanitarian record of the proud craft to which you 
belong. 



268 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE 

in the Life of Small Communities 

in Ontario in the 1860's 

by W.Bro. Gordon L Finbow 

Leamington Masonic Temple 

Leamington, Ontario 

May 11, 1996 



The restored lodge room at Black Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto, Ontario, 

has often been described as a window into Masonry. 

This paper is dedicated to the Masonic interpreters at Black Creek Pioneer 

Village, who open the curtains to enable the light to shine through. 

TO MEMORY 

We dare not ask when life will leave us; 

Instinctively we hold our breath. 

Though passing hours like tyrants grieve us, 

Still would we shun the pains ofdeatlt 

But rising from the grave of bygone years, 

A spirit comes to pacify our fears; 

'Tis Memory, and in her light man hears Naught 

but the music of the Past. 

Charles Mair, Perth, Aug. 1, 1868 39 ^ 
The research for this paper was conducted primarily in Sinicoe, 
Perth and Markham. These were small communities in the 1860's, and 
had active lodges and newspapers then. I am indebted to Norfolk Lodge 
No. 10, Simcoe, True Briton's Lodge No. 14, Perth, and Markham 
Union Lodge No. 87, Markham, for permission to use their records and 
for die assistance I received from their members. In order to better 
understand the activities of the 1860's, it proved necessary to look at 
earlier and later historical, economic, political and sociological 
information. 

This paper will present the following: 

1. Social, dernographical and economic conditions leading up to and into 
the 1860's. 

2. The state of Freemasonry in Canada entering the 1860's. 

3. The external pressures on Canada entering and during the 1860's. 

4. Local lodges and their activities in the 1860's. 



269 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

5. Examples of involved more brethren and their activities. 

6. Conclusion and some views for reflection. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BACKGROUND 

Upper Canada, later to become Canada West and then Ontario, was 
from the earliest days of settlement to the end of the lSoX^s marked by 
constant change. The local life of the towns of Upper Canada during the 
first half century after the creation of the province was patterned after 
that of English towns of the same period. 36p321 Freemasonry was present 
from the very beginning. The first Legislative Council met in 
Freemasons' Hall, Niagara-on-the Lake, in 1792. 36 p 619 

It is virtually impossible to say when or where the first Lodge was 
held in what is now Ontario. We can, however, be reasonably sure that 
it would have been one attached to a British army regiment (or a naval 
ship). We do know that a Lodge known as No. 156 in the King's 
Regiment, the 8th Foot, was at Fort Niagara in 1773 and was stationed 
at this location which is now in the State of New York, and in parts of 
Canada until 1785 . 22pl5 From this beginning Freemasonry grew, as 
Ontario grew, to the Masonic presence we know today. 

The people of Ontario emigrated primarily from the British Isles 
with a small but significant segment coming from the United States. 
The immigrants from the British Isles brought with them many of the 
same organizations that they had known in the old country. Among the 
Irish settlers, the Orange Lodge was very important. The Orange lodges 
helped bring together Irish Protestants in Upper Canada. They gave 
financial help to new arrivals from Britain. The lodges offered a 
substitute for a church when ministers were hard to find (for services 
such as funerals). Their members watched over morals and organized 
social activities in frontier settlements. Other self-help organizations 
included the St. Andrew's, the St. David's and St. George's societies 
named after the patron saints of Scotland, Wales and England 
respectively. Among working men die re were Oddfellows and Forester's 
societies and die beginnings of union organization. 28 p249 

National societies based on nationalist feelings toward their recently 
left homeland flourished. These included Mechanic's Institutes; 
Firemen's organizations; Religious organizations such as the British & 
Foreign Bible Society; Library and Debating societies; Brass Bands 
which were supported by other groups for parades etc.; Horticultural 
Societies; Agricultural Societies and Fall Fairs, and Private schools. 
These organizations sponsored public lectures, receptions and balls. 36 p344 

Lodges and fraternal societies played a very important part in die 
early social life, especially after settlements had grown into thriving 



270 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

communities. 36 p328 

What was to become Ontario was a vast, diversified land. Pioneer 
settlement occurred at different places at different times. Villages and 
towns grew to support the growing agricultural economy. Pioneer 
districts were still at hand, but by the 1860'S the older settlements had 
gone far beyond their first difficulties and had reached a more advanced 
stage of development. 29p345 The men who throng her marts and clear her 
forests are workers, not dreamers; who have already realized Solomon's 
pithy proverb, "In all labour is profit" and their industry has imbued 
them with a spirit of independence which cannot fail to make them a 
free and enlightened people. 32 p5 

An army, or at least a special constabulary force, usually followed 
close upon the heels of the frontiersmen; indeed, many of the earliest 
settlements, for instance that of the Richelieu Valley in New France and 
of Perth in Upper Canada, were affected by military organizations. 30pI89 

This contrasted widi the United States where frontiersmen were 
self-protecting. Formal institutions of law and order followed settlement 
in the United States but usually later than in British America and only 
after the concept of self-reliance was firmly established. The "right to 
bear arms" became a landmark in the United States because of the past 
need for self-protection on the frontiers and the resulting attitudes of 
independence and self-reliance. In British America the settlers or fron- 
tiersmen instead became dependent earlier upon those formal institutions 
such as army, constabulary and courts for their protection, as they were 
available much earlier in the setdement process. This difference in 
attitude towards guns and the need for guns for protection is one of the 
significant differences between Canadians and Americans today. 

The effort to build up a political system in Canada which would 
remain independent of the United States involved the imposition of 
strong checks upon revolutionary tendencies. New France was isolated 
from revolutionary France through the building up in the colony of a 
powerfully centralized political and ecclesiastical system. The British 
colonies and, after 1867, the Canadian nation were similarly isolated 
from outside revolutionary influences by the maintenance of a strong 
system of political control, supported by the church, a privileged upper 
class, and before 1870, the British army and navy. Whereas the 
American nation was a product of the revolutionary spirit, the Canadian 
nation grew mainly out of forces of a counter-revolutionary character. 
The reason was that frontier settlement in Canada rarely extended far 
beyond the reach of the military forces of Empire or nation. The 
vulnerability of the Canadian frontier forced early attention to the 



271 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

problems of defence, with the result that law-enforcement agencies 
could usually rely on the support of military forces. 30 p,9 ° 

hi the 1840's and 185CKs immigration from the United Kingdom 
(and to a lesser extent the United States) continued to help develop the 
unsettled parts of Canada West still suited to agricultural population. 
According to the census of 1851, just under sixty per cent of the people 
in Canada West had been born in the region. Another eighteen per cent 
had been born in Ireland, nine percent in England and Wales, eight 
percent in Scotland and five per cent in the United States. By 1860 an 
estimated 30,000 Black refugees were living north of the Great Lakes. 
The Irish potato famine of the 1840's increased the numbers of Irish 
Catholics, though Protestant Ulstermen were still dominant. 26 p104 

The Irish potato famine of the 1840's devastated an already 
impoverished rural people. Potatoes were the staple of their diet, and the 
rotting of seed potatoes two years in a row with the resulting crop 
failures resulted in lack of income and widespread starvation. Irish 
farmers on small holdings were mostly tenants of English absentee 
landlords who engaged local agents to look after their interests. These 
agents and English landowners were unsympathetic to the plight of their 
tenant-farmers, refusing their requests for waiving or reducing rents. 
Thousands were evicted from their rented land, as well as thousands 
who lost their owned land due to not being able to meet their 
obligations. The British government in England offered little in relief. 
Tlus lack of response to the plight of die Irish people by government in 
England as well as the English landowners caused intense feelings of 
animosity toward the English by the Irish. The lack of food, money and 
future caused 4,000,000 Irish men, women and children to emigrate; 
with a large percentage going to the United States and British America. 

Many of the Irish who left their shores carried with them a legacy 
of hatred for anything English. This hatred became as much of their 
cultural identity as the Catholic faith, their Gaelic speech and their folk 
music. 

These immigrants were the basis of the Fenian Societies that we 
will hear about later. Many Irish immigrants arrived in British North 
America. They were the largest group after the French Canadians in the 
years leading up to Confederation in 1867. 28p239 

The population of Canada West increased dramatically during the 
quarter century preceding Confederation in 1867. The half-million 
people of the early 1840's had risen to a million people by die 1850's 
and a million and a half people by the 1860's. By 1860 almost twenty 
percent of the population of Canada West lived in cities, towns and 



272 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

villages. 2615102 By the 1860'S the agricultural settlement frontier was 
starting to flounder on the rocky Canadian shield, Southern Ontario 
would remain fundamentally agricultural until the later nineteenth 
century. 26 pKM 

By 1860 the cultural mosaic had acquired distinctive geographic 
clusterings that would persist well into the twentieth century. Yet even 
the regionalism of Canada West had important diversities. The Past was 
awash with Tory Loyalism and the Orange Order. But it was also a 
center of Scottish and French Catholic influence. 26 pl08 

Public interest in the many demographic segments of the population 
led to speculative newspaper articles like die following: A lack of 
records from before 1849 makes it impossible to determine when 
Anglicans at Smith's Falls decided on the name of St. John the 
Evangelist for their parish. A celebration of die Masonic anniversary of 
St John the Evangelist at Smith's Falls in Jan. 1841 suggests that the 
predominandy Anglican membership of Saint Francis (Masonic) Lodge 
may account for naming the parish. 40 p2, ° Endnote Kingston Chronicle 
and Gazette, 27 January 1841. 

The plain political fact was that in British America, all societies, 
whether religious or secular, had, like all individuals, to be treated with 
equal consideration, or hot resentment followed. 58 p87 

An unprecedented economic boom liad developed by the early 
1850's. The English-Canadian society that would typify Ontario in the 
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries had begun to take shape. 
From a distance, it was a British Empire variation on North American 
themes, with an increasingly pronounced Anglo-Protestant mainstream. 
Up close, English-speaking Canada West was still a place where a 
vigorous cultural mosaic and large numbers of recent immigrants 
brought great variety (and conflict) to the wider community stimulated 
by a new railway age. 26 p105 

In Estern Canada a growing network of railways began to link the 
colonies. 28 p251 The railway era really began in the 1850's. At the 
beginning of the decade there were in British North America some sixty 
miles of short lines which were intended merely as portages between 
waterways. By 1860 there were over two thousand miles, and railways 
were rivals of the waterways. 29 p29 ° They (the railways) might solve, as 
nothing else could, the problem of the barriers which separated the parts 
of British North America. 29 p293 As mentioned before, the 1850's were a 
period of massive immigration, particularly from the British Isles. The 
growing population settled mainly in rural Upper Canada and market 
towns serving the farms. This settlement on the lands ran into obstacles. 



273 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

Good land was running out. Settlement followed the lumber trade 
through the Ottawa Valley to Lake Huron, and north of Lake Simcoe. 
(west of Perth) Into this region colonization roads with free land grants 
were started, but lands suitable for farming were scarce and soon 
abandoned by settlers. There was great demand for wheat in the 1850's 
giving high prices and the building of solid farm buildings and town 
houses. The lumber industry had really taken off in the late 1850's 
because the 1854 Treaty of Reciprocity had opened up Canadian Forests 
to Americans and Brits such as "J.R.Booth and E.B.Eddy." The lumber 
camps were the great source of winter work for farm labour made 
surplus by the season. From family life on the farms to the 
gregariousness of the shanty. 58 p3 & 5 

To add to the excitement of the times, late in 1859, Cariboo Lake, 
(British Columbia) the centre of the richest (gold) region was 
discovered. During the 1860's, $25,000,000 in gold was yielded. 29 p299 

By the 1860's, Canada West, winch was shortly to become Ontario, 
had developed into a prosperous and populous rural society. Its main 
dilemma was die growing pressure on die available land, a problem that 
would eventually find its solution as the next wave of setdement 
overleapt the barren expanses of die Canadian Shield to arrive in die 
rich and empty prairies. I0 p247 

By the later 1850's a system of decimal coinage based on a new 
Canadian dollar had replaced die pound sterling as the official currency 
of the United Province. New trade with the United States helped bring 
a resounding economic boom to the Ontario territory. Many smaller 
Ontario centres became diriving wheat markets. 26 pl07 

After a turbulent adolescence in the 1850's, Ontario emerged as a 
mature, self-confident province in the 1860's. 42 p26 ° 

Canada West had a diverse population going into the 1860's as we 
have seen already, but it further divided into two distinct economic 
philosophies. Two very different societies were separated by the empty 
townships along die Rideau. The American-origin inhabitants along the 
St. Lawrence forged a society in winch individualism was strong and 
where there were few collective enterprises or economic partnerships. 
40 p58 By contrast, the group settlements of Irish and Scottish immigrants 
around Perth and Richmond featured many economic partnerships and 
group enterprises, These mutual enterprises among the British immi- 
grants were variously based on ethnic or religious ties of people coming 
from the same locale of the old country, or having served in the same 
regiment and on ties dirough secret societies such as the Orange and 
Masonic Lodges. 40 p58 



274 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

Changing attitudes towards membership in "secret societies" is 
indicated in the following article which appeared in the Perth Courier 
Newspaper on Jan. 27, 1860: 

At a meeting of City Council of Toronto on Tuesday, 24th of 
January, the rule by which members of secret societies were excluded 
from and rendered incapable of serving in the Public Force was, 
without a division, repealed 44 

THE STATE OF FREEMASONRY IN CANADA 
ENTERING THE 1860s 

Freemasonry had been expanding and evolving in the years 
preceding the 185CS as dramatically as the changes that were occurring 
in society in those same years. We now come to that troubled period in 
the history of Freemasonry in Canada when there was much 
correspondence with the Grand Lodge of England, regarding the 
formation of an independent Grand Lodge of Canada. Suffice it to say 
that the Grand Lodge of Canada was formed with the same ideals and 
rules as the Grand Lodge of England, but sovereign in itself over all 
Lodges in its jurisdiction. 24 The Honourable H. T. Backus, Past Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan performed the installation 
ceremony at a special meeting at the Masonic Hall at Hamilton on the 
2nd November 1855. The new Grand Lodge was duly constituted under 
the name of "The Most Worshipful, The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free 
and Accepted Masons of Canada" and William Mercer Wilson was 
installed as the first Grand Master. 16 Not all Masonic Lodges in the area 
of jurisdiction of the new Grand Lodge joined the new Grand Lodge. 
By July, 1856, 39 lodges had affiliated with the Provincial Grand 
Lodge. One of these being a newly formed lodge called Simcoe Lodge, 
in Simcoe, the home of W. Mercer Wilson. 14 

His first act as Grand Master was to prepare a communication to 
the Grand Lodge of England in which he set forth clearly the causes 
leading up to the Grand Lodge formation, mentioning specifically the 
uncourteous neglect of the Mother Grand Lodge to answer the numerous 
appeals made to it to remedy existing injustices. 14 This neglect by the 
Mother Grand Lodge in England was happening at the same time that 
fundamental changes were taking place in Britain. In the next two 
decades (185CS and 1860'S) Britain reached a high point of industrial 
development and material prosperity. 28 As regards her colonies, Britain 
was gradually abandoning the mercantilist position which had been the 
basis of her old colonial empire. The products of British factories were 
selling everywhere. British investors were building railways, bridges and 
factories all over the globe. 28 All this was making the nation wealthy 



275 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

and there seemed to be no need to keep the colonies as source of raw 
materials or dependent markets. This meant an end to the preferred 
treattnent that British North American farmers had enjoyed. It meant 
that the colonies had to start defending their economic interests for 
diemselves. 28 Two similar fundamental changes in attitude by the 
government in England and the Grand Lodge of England: A 
coincidence? Indications of a more independent Canada in the future? 

During the three years, 1855 to 1858, efforts were being made to 
have all Masons in the jurisdiction unified under one Grand Lodge. In 
1857 the Provincial Grand Lodge severed the ties that bound it to the 
Mother Grand Lodge 14 and At the meeting of the Grand Lodge of 
Canada on the 14th of July 1858, to meet in King Solomon's Lodge in 
Toronto, it was arranged that the longed-for union (of the Grand Lodge 
of Canada and the Provincial Grand Lodge, now called the Ancient 
Grand Lodge) would then be consummated. 16 In the Grand Master's 
address to the 1860 Grand Communication, he reported that 21 new 
lodges were granted dispensations during the previous year and it was 
a time of harmony and expansion for Grand Lodge particularly in the 
area of Masonic charity. ' From a History of York Lodge, No. 156: The 
lodge register gives an excellent picture of the cosmopolitan nature of 
the lodge, and shows that true Masonic principles existed in every 
stratum of society, irrespective of rank. 6 

Thus at the beginning of the 1860's die Grand Lodge of Canada was 
stable and harmonious, and able to give the necessary leadership and 
direction to its lodges enabling them to carry out their work and 
activities in the 1860's. 

Before we look at those lodge activities, let us take a look at two 
excerpts, one by Susanna Moodie, and the other by Una Abrahamson 
which provide some contrasting observations about social life in the 
1840's, 185a s and the 1860's: 

You can scarcely adopt a better plan of judging of the wealth and 
prosperity of a town than by watching, of a Sabbath morning, the 
congregations of the different denominations going to church. 

Belleville weekly presents to the eye of the observing spectator a 
large body of well dressed, happy looking people, robust, healthy, 
independent-looking men, and well-formed, handsome women—an air of 
content and comfort resting upon their comely faces—no look of 
haggard care and pinching want marring the quiet solemnity of the 
scene. 

The dress of the higher class is not only cut in the newest French 
fashion, imported from New York, but is generally composed of rich and 



276 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

expensive materials. The Canadian lady dresses well and tastefully and 
carries herself easily and gracefully. She is not unconscious of the 
advantages of a pretty face and figure; but her knowledge of the fact is 
not exhibited in an effected or disagreeable manner. Vie lower class 
are not a whit behind their wealthier neighbours in outward adornment. 
And the poor immigrant, who only a few months previously landed in 
rags, is now dressed neatly and respectably. Vie consciousness of their 
newly-acquired freedom has raised them in the scale of society, in their 
own estimation, and in that of their fellows. 32 

The relationships between men and women in the nineteenth century 
brings to mind long and delicate courtships, large happy families with 
proud wise fathers and devoted saintly mothers, all wrapped up in a 
lace-edged valentine. There is another side to the coin which reveals the 
sordidness, the scandals and the widespread vices that flourished. We 
may feel that our times have a new moral standard outmoding other 
mores, but the nineteenth century was also a time of upheaval. Vie 
same problems existed but perhaps on a larger scale in relationship to 
a smaller population. Viere was illegitimacy, extensive drug addiction, 
homosexuality, as well as the hypocrisy of the double standard which 
believed in purity for all but allowed young men to adventure if not 
caught, while women were isolated at home. 

How did it all come about? Up to the early days of the nineteenth 
century women in the educated classes were venturesome, 
knowledgeable, cultivated, and they enjoyed personal freedom. All this 
was gradually curtailed as time passed, while education became more 
sketchy and the home became a gilded cage. Women became symbols, 
enjoying greater prestige than ever but no longer participating in daily 
affairs nor able to discuss the problems of the day with their men. Vieir 
interests were restricted to the social world; they were on a pedestal, 
adored, revered, but untouched. As a result, every young man of the 
social classes who conformed to this new attitude was denied the 
companionship of women of his own background. 

The books, the advertisements and the patent medicines to cure 
unnamed diseases, as well as the thundering from the pulpits, show that 
under the pompous urbanity of the respectable there were festers. The 
growth of prostitution and the lack of adequate relationships between 
the sexes colour the social life and the etiquette of the period. It 
increases in intensity as the century progresses. 

Most of these social problems were restricted to larger areas of 
population although the frontier towns of the west cannot be exempted 
It is all like one of their favourite parlour games, Charades, play- 



277 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

acting, a facade^ that completely hides a way of life, until you read 
between the lines of the many books of the period on social life, health, 
medicine and sex. ,3 

J.S. Coombs of Perth, a past master of True Briton's Lodge No. 14 
was a chemist and druggist He advertised in the Perth Courier 
newspaper that he had a franchise to sell A Great Female Medicine.** 
It was the common practice that patent medicines of all types be 
advertised in the local newspapers so there was nothing unusual in this 
ad appearing. I made no further inquiries as to the product advertised. 

If the second excerpt by Una Abrahamson is accurate in its 
perception of the role of women in the society of the 186(ys, dien did 
Masons as well as other men of the community unconsciously, or 
perhaps deliberately exclude women from participation in daily affairs. 
Did the presence in the communities of fraternal lodges that excluded 
women and which provided men with a cloistered venue for discussion 
of day-to-day events contribute to the isolating of women in the society 
of the 19th century? If so, does Freemasonry bear some responsibility 
for this gentile isolation of women? Something to ponder. 

POLITICAL CONDITIONS AND EXTERNAL CONCERNS 

The years up to the lSoXXs were marked by political instability and 
changes. Those years had seen the rebellion in Lower Canada in 
November 1837, and before it ended, the beginning of the rebellion in 
Upper Canada in December 1837. Even though the Canadian rebellions 
ended, the Patriot agitation continued. Leaders of the Upper Canada 
rebellion fled to the United States where, with the help of American 
sympathizers, organized Patriot Societies and Hunters' Lodges to invade 
Canada. Raids into Canadian territory happened in 1838. Although the 
raids were all stopped, Canadians were reminded of past worries about 
the intentions of the Americans. These rebellions led to Lord Durham's 
report in 1839 and eventually to the Act of Union, passed by the British 
Parliament in 1840, which united Lower and Upper Canada into Canada 
East and Canada West. This arrangement proved troublesome, and led 
to two political initiatives, the first to establish a federal union of all the 
colonies of British North America, and the second, to form a loose 
federal union of Upper and Lower Canada alone . 9p24lp254 It seemed clear 
to the colonial secretary that the federal union plan was not workable 
at that time (1858), for neither the maritime colonies on the Atlantic, 
nor the western colonies in the midst of their gold rush, were prepared 
to help sponsor a union. 1 ' p 252 Interest in the question was dropped for 
the moment. Yet nine years later Confederation was accomplished. The 
military threat of the United States, and a strong coalition government 



278 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

in the Province of Canada were two important elements missing in 1858 
but present in 1864. ,ip252 

In. Apr. 1861, the American Civil War broke out. In 1861 very few 
Canadians had any desire for annexation to the United States. There was 
fear of what the North American Army would do after it had defeated 
the South in the American Civil War. Militias gave an outlet to the 
patriotism of young Canadians. 58 p89 The Trent Affair: An American 
naval officer, Captain Charles Wilkes, stopped the Royal Mailship 
Steamship Trent in the Bahamas channel on Nov. 8, 1861 and removed 
two commissioners as contraband of war. Would this lead to war or 
peace? Would this mean that a war between the United States and 
Britain would be fought on Canadian soil. Fourteen thousand British 
solders were sent to Canada to defend British America. The Militia of 
volunteers grew. The Trent Affair was resolved peacefully. 58 p,0 ° "The 
Trent Affair revealed the precarious state of communications in all 
Canada. 58 pl03 On Jan. 24, 1862 the Perth Courier newspaper expressed 
considerable concern about the war in the United States and the 
implications for Canada West. 44 

The last surviving Imperial obligation in the second British Empire 
was defence. Down to the middle of the 19th century, Great Britain had 
borne almost its entire burden herself. She was still bearing it, though 
with increasing reluctance, when the outbreak of the Ameri-can Civil 
War in 1861 compelled her to make a last great effort for the defence 
of British America. In the winter of 1861-62, at the time of the Trent 
Crisis, Great Britain made a military re-entry into North America with 
forces greater than those employed at the height of the Seven Years' 
War; and although these large numbers were subsequendy reduced, 
reinforcements were again dispatched to repel the Fenian raids in 
1866. 12p,2 ° Before the end of 1871, the last British soldiers marched out 
of St. John's and Quebec. ,2p22 

Other events contributed to the uncertainties. The Reciprocity Treaty 
extended from Jan. 1, 1854 to Jan 1, 1864 and was extended for one 
year. In June 1865 at a convention at Detroit called to decide to con- 
tinue or terminate the Treaty, John F. Potter, American Consul General 
in Montreal urged the ending of Reciprocity as a means of putting 
pressure on the provinces to seek annexation. There was support for this 
in the United States northeast but Potter's blurting it out was offensive 
in the extreme and resented in American and Colonial circles. 8 p186 

The St. Albans Raid, carried out in October 1864 by a small party 
of Confederate soldiers who used Canada as a base for a descent on the 
town of St. Albans in Vermont, roused the United States to a paroxysm 



279 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

of indignation. 12 p,5 ° 

At the end of May 1866, "General" John O'Neill crossed the Niagara 
River with a force of 1,500 Fenians, and two days later a column of 
Canadian Militia met the American invaders at Ridgeway in still another 
spirited fight on the historic battlegrounds of the Niagara frontier. This 
futile but bloody harrying of the border was a potent force in the growth 
of Canadian nationalism, and the belief that union was necessary for 
defence and survival gave strength to the Confederation movement. ,2p,5 ° 

When the North won and the war (American Civil War} ended in 
1865, Canadians really began to worry. They wondered whether the 
North would then turn their vast armies against Canada. Would they see 
an attack on Canada as a way of getting revenge on Britain? An 
American Senator suggested that Canada should be turned over to the 
United States for the damage done by the British boat Alabama. In the 
summer of 1867, an American official, William H. Seward, had said in 
a speech: / know that Nature plans tliat this whole continent, not merely 
these thirty-six states, shall be, sooner or later, within the American 
union? 1 p53 

The Fenian attacks (in 1866) had two major effects on British North 
American colonies. First, John A. Macdonald managed to turn the raids 
to his advantage. He argued that a united country would be better able 
to resist such invasions. It was time, he said, that Canadians thought 
more seriously about defence. The governments of the provinces voted 
more money for defence and more volunteers were trained for the army. 
Second, there was a feeling of resentment on the part of the Canadians 
against the United States government for allowing the Fenian Raids to 
go on so long. Many felt that American newspapers encouraged the 
Fenians. Thus the Fenians provided another push towards 
Confederation. 27 p54 

It is a curious fact in Canadian history that the Fenians 
unintentionally did a great service to the cause of Confederation. 29 p318 

After the war (American Civil War) ended in April 1865, "Fenian" 
Irish Nationalists disbanded from the northern army made brief attacks 
at various points along the United States border with British North 
America, including an attempted "invasion" near Fort Erie. For a time 
it seemed that the American Civil War might spread into "the true 
north, strong and free". 26pl27 In his address to the 1866 Com-munication, 
Wm. Mercer Wilson, Grand Master said: Within the last few weeks the 
soil of Canada lias been polluted by the tread of a band of lawless 
invaders, (Fenians) the very pariahs of society.* 

Confederation occurred and the Dominion of Canada was 



280 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

established on July, 1, 1867. 

The British Canadian of Oct. 3, 1866 contained an article about the 
proposed formation of a Grand Lodge of North America. This proposal 
came from Lernster Lodge No. 357 I.R., St. John, N.B., and was 
contained in article there on Aug. 6, 1866 46 (Oct.3, 1866) He (M.W.Bro. 
W.B. Simpson) believed that Confederation would prove of incalculable 
benefit to our order and place us in the foremost rank of the Grand 
Lodges of the World. He was supportive of setting up a Grand Lodge 
of British North America. 4 

hi contrast, in his address to the Grand Lodge communication of 
1867, M. W. Bro. Wilson was enthusiastic about "The Dominion of 
Canada". However he says: While I readily admit diat there is 
something peculiarly pleasing in the idea of uniting all the members of 
our fraternity who reside in the various Provinces now confederated 
together into one grand body; and while contemplating also the 
probability of important territorial additions still to be made to the new 
Dominion, I must confess that I entertain grave doubts whether a union, 
embracing such an immense extent of country, would have a tendency 
to promote the advancement of the best interests of Masonry on this 
continent. 5 It would be interesting to know what circumstances had 
changed this perception. 

The British North America Act came into force on July 1, 1867. 
The 1860's until that time were consumed with the events leading up to 
Confederation. After that time the 1860's were taken up with the 
expansion of Canada, eastward and westward. 58 No one supposed that 
the Confederation of 1867 could endure as it was, a mere enclave of 
British territory in a continent dominated by the United States. Only a 
union capable of serving as a basis for an authentic nationality, and one 
virtually independent, could do that. The United States would accept in 
the long run only a nation like itself and one which was rid of the 
military power of Great Britain. But the Dominion of 1867 was no such 
basis. For such a foundation both the plains of the Northwest and the 
ports of the Pacific coast were necessary. Because the United States was 
continental, Canada too had to be continental. 58 p223 

Our background as a nation is complete, leaning heavily on the 
traditions of Great Britain, France and America. 

Many cross-currents affected the Canadian way of life; everything 
from the age-old wisdom of the Indians to the inquisitiveness of the 
Yankee-Canadian. There were frontier attitudes, while in the towns there 
was an awareness of caste and rank in what was meant to be a casteless 
society. Life in Canada was kaleidoscopic, always changing, full of 



281 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

anomalies, advanced yet primitive, different from the life of its southern 
neighbour, different from Europe. It was Canadian. 13 pym Members, past 
and present, who have found within its walls something which satisfied 
a need, and from which they have got what they were prepared to 

57 

give. 
SOME INVOLVED BRETHREN AND THEIR ACTIVITIES 

Freemasonry certainly was active in the 1 SCO's as we have 
observed, making a significant contribution to society. But little was 
reported by the newspapers in the small towns about Masonic activities, 
other than the social events sponsored by the local lodges. Why was 
this? Was it because they were doing nothing newsworthy? Was it 
because Masons were reluctant to tell what they were doing? Masonry 
doesn't get much coverage in the media today. Why not? Can we 
change this? Do we want to? How? Something else to think about. 

The real contribution was not by the local lodges directly, but 
through their members. The heart of Masonry is in the hearts of its 
members. That's what Masonry really is. It's the men in it. 31 p177 

Much has been written about Freemasons who have been 
outstanding men in their respective realms of activities. A book written 
in 1959 by William R. Denslow entitled 10,000 Famous Freemasons is 
indicative of the extent of the work of Freemasons We are familiar with 
some outstanding Freemasons but not so familiar with others. Earlier we 
learned of the extensive involvement of Masons in the Canadian Militia. 
The following Masons made significant contributions to society in their 
own way: 

Truman Pennock Wliite. Originally was a farmer but became very 
involved in business in die local village of Majorville (now Whitevale). 
Served on the Township Council for 20 years, 16 as Reeve and in 1861 
was Warden of the County of Ontario. He owned a woollen mill, grist 
mill and saw mill. After a fire in 1882 he moved to Manitoba. 22 

On Tues. Sept. 28, 1869, H.R.H. Prince Arthur, son of Queen 
Victoria and Sir John Young, the Governor-General of Canada visited 
Simcoe. There was a procession, dinner at the Norfolk House Hotel, 
then the party assembled on the balcony of the hotel, where an address 
of welcome was read by Daniel Matthews, the Warden of the County. 
Daniel Matthews was Master of Norfolk Lodge 10 in 1863-1864. 37 

A.J. Donly, another Past Master nf Norfolk Lodge, taught school in 
Merrickville before coming to Simcoe in 1857 where he taught in the 
public school. He was Superintendent of the Methodist Sunday School 
for forty years prior to his death on March 19, 1908. 37 

James Murison Dunn, first Worshipful Master of Speed Lodge was 



282 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

headmaster of the Wellington District Grammar School, now the Guelph 
Collegiate Vocational Institute. 161 " 

The Spreight Wagon Works was managed by Mr. James Spreight 
who was born in Markham in 1830 and attended school until 15 years 
of age. He then worked with his father, Thomas, in the old factory and 
learned the business. He was the first Reeve of the Village in 1873 and 
held the Reeveship for ten years. He was High School Trustee, 
Secretary Treasurer of the Township Agricultural Society and a member 
of the Masonic and Oddfellows lodge. He was active in the first 
Markham Fair in 1852. *The records for 1852 are lost and the first 
official Markham Fair was in 1856. James Speight carried on the 
business from his father and it became at one time, the largest wagon 
industry in Ontario. 62 

There is a second bust of Wm. Mercer Wilson, executed in 1877 in 
honour of his long service as Chairman of the Board of School 
Trustees. It was originally in the Lecture Room of the Public School, 
later in the high school and at one time is said to have been in the 
Masonic Hall, now on the outside wall of Museum. The bust was done 
by Mr. Samuel Gardner, who had done a bust of Sir. John A. 
Macdonald just prior to 1869. 45 

John Hart, who was Worshipful Master of True Briton's No. 14 in 
1862 was the publisher of Hart's Canadian Almanac and ran a book 
shop in Perth. He was also active in the militia. 44 

Henry Groff, Worshipful Master of Norfolk Lodge No. 10 in 1861- 
1862, was elected Grand Treasurer in 1869. He was editor and publisher 
of the Reformer from 1872 to 1881, ran a bookstore and was Registrar 
of Deeds for Norfolk County. 51 

Donald McMurchey, who was Worshipful Master of Markham 
Union No.87 Lodge six years during the 1860'S. He was also 
Worshipful Master of Richardson Lodge, Stouffville in 1868-1869 at the 
same time he was Master of Markham Union. He was a farmer in 
Pickering Township and also a partner in a tannery in Stouffville. 22 

Henry Ryan Corson . . . had many interests. He was a leading 
promoter of the first Markham Grammar School and a trustee. He was 
a promoter of one of the first telegraph lines in Canada—from Whitby 
to Markham. He was a shareholder in the Markham Plank Road Co. He 
was a director of the Speight Mfg. Co. He was a director of the East 
York and the Markham Agricultural Societies and secretary for a time. 
A strong advocate of the incorporation of Markham Village, Mr. Corson 
acted as clerk for many years. He was a Freemason, and the first 
member initiated into Markham Union Lodge. He was a staunch 



283 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

Liberal, and personal friends of leaders of that party and was a warm 
personal friend of Sir John A. Macdonald. He was editor of the 
Markham Economist from 1867 until his death in 1909. In 1860 Mr. 
Corson went to the Cariboo for the gold rush. When he returned he had 
$35 worth of gold dust and a small nugget. 62 

Sir John A. Macdonald was initiated in St. John's Lodge No. 758 
(English) on Mar. 14, 1844. In 1856 he was appointed to represent the 
Grand Lodge of England near the Grand Lodge of Canada. 56 His 
contribution to Canada was outstanding. What is intriguing is why Ins 
involvement with the Masonic Fraternity was not mentioned by 
historians of the period such as George Woodcock, Edwin C. Guillet, 
W.L. Morton or even by his biographer, Donald Creighton. Something 
else to ponder. 

The last two are unsung heroes who shouldn't be. "A Faithful 
Worker—A member of Holly Springs Lodge, in Mississippi, who was 
eight-two years old, and sixty-one years a Mason, who set type every 
day, and set apart one-third of his wages for the benefit of Masonic 
widows and orphans. " ,7p2,Nw - ,5 ' ,867edi,,on 

Bro. Thomas Brooke, member of True Briton's Lodge and Clerk of 
the Town. 44 In early 1864 the lodge was brought into disrepute by one 
of its members who was suspended and reported to the Grand Lodge. 
This situation resulted in the lodge ceasing to meet. 25 In 1865 True 
Briton's was over 12 months in arrears and was to show cause why their 
warrant should not be surrendered. 3 There were no meetings until 1869 
when Bro. Thomas Brooke got the lodge together again and arranged 
a settlement with Grand Lodge. 25 His successful efforts to get die lodge 
meeting again made it possible for True Briton's and Masonry to 
continue in Perth to this day. 

Local Masonic lodges certainly played a role in the development of 
Canada during the 1860's, but what was that role? What was a Masonic 
Lodge in the 1860's? 

The answer to these questions lies in the hearts of its members past 
and present, who have found within its walls something which satisfied 
a need, and from which they have got what they were prepared to 

S7 

give. 

That, I submit, was the principal role of the Masonic local lodges 
in the life of small communities in Ontario during the 1860's. I leave it 
for you to decide if, indeed, it is today still the role of Masonic lodges 
in Ontario. 



284 



THE ROLE OF THE MASONIC LODGE IN THE 1860'S 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Grand Lodge A.F.& A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 
Proceedings 1860. 

2. Ibid, 1861. 

3. Ibid, 1865. 

4. Ibid, 1866. 

5. Ibid, 1867. 

6. A History of York Lodge No. 156. 

7. Lodge History of True Briton's Lodge No. 14, Perth. 

8. Lodge History of Richmond Lodge No. 23, York. 

9. Dominion of the North. Donald Creighton, MacMillan of Canada. 

10. A Social History of Canada. George Woodcock, Viking/Penguin Books. 

11. Canada: Unity in Diversity. Comell-Hamelin Ouellet-Trudel. 
Holt Rinehart Winston. 

12. Canada: The Heroic Beginnings. Donald Creighton, MacMillan of Canada. 

13. Domestic Life in Nineteenth Century Canada. Abrahamson, 
Bums & MacEachem Ltd. 

14. First Grand Master. Bruce M. Pearce Norfolk Lodge No. 10. 
Second Edition, Pearce Publishing Co. Ltd. 

15. One Hundred and One Years of Craft Masonry in the Town of Whitby. Geo. W. P. 
Every. History of Unity Lodge 1826-51 and Composite Lodge 1852-1927. 

16. Speed Lodge: The Mother of Guelph Masonry, Henry Law, 
A Lodge History. 

17. The Craftsman and British American Masonic Record, 
Vol. 1, Oct. 1, 1866 to Sept. 1867. 

18. Ibid Nov. 15, 1867 edition. 

19. Ibid Apr. 15, 1868 edition. 

20. Ibid Nov. 15, 1868 edition. 

21. Ibid Feb. 15, 1869 edition. 

22. Markham Union Lodge No. 87, M. Alfred N. Shenfield, Historian. 
A Lodge History (1983). 

23. North Toronto, Donald H. Ritchie- 1 SBN 1-55046-OH-0, 
A Boston Mills Press book, Stoddart Publishing Co. Ltd. 

24. True Briton's Lodge No. 14 1968, A Lodge History. 

25. Minutes, True Briton's Lodge No. 14, Perth. 

26. Ontario 1610-1985. A Political and Economic History, 
Randall White, Ontario Heritage Foundation. 

27. Flashback Canada, Cruxton and Wilson, Oxford University Press, Toronto. 

28. Our Cultural Heritage, Sonia A. Riddock. Clarke, Irwin & Co. Ltd. 

29. Building the Canadian Nation, Geo. W. Brown, J. M. Dent and Sons. 

30. The Developing Canadian Community, S.D. Clark, 
University of Toronto Press. 

31. A Pilgrim's Path: Freemasonry and the Religious Right, John J. Robinson. 

M. Evans & Co. 

32. Life in the Clearings, Susanna Moodie 971.3, 
The MacMillan Co. of Canada (1853). 

33. Address delivered by V.W.Bro. Otto Klotz Dec. 27, 1864, 
Ladies Night, Alma Lodge No. 39, Gait. 

34. Preliminary Reports and Fraternal Reviews to the One Hundred and Fortieth 
Annual Communication of Grand Lodge, A.F. and A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario, 1995. 



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THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

35. Minutes, Norfolk Lodge No. 10, Simcoe, Ontario. 

36. Early Life in Upper Canada, Edwin C. Guillet. 

37. Simcoe and Norfolk County (1924) History (in Simcoe Library). 

38. Perth -- Tradition Style (Local History) in Matheson Museum, Perth. 

39. Perth Remembered, Edited Edward Short 1867. 

40. Smith Falls - A Social History of the Men and Women 
in a Rideau Canal Community 1794 - 1994. 

Glenn J. Lockwood Heritage House, Smith Falls. 

41. Beckwith. Glenn J. Lockwood. 

Available from Beckwith Township Office, Carleton Place. 

42. Ontario, Loyal She Remains: A Pictorial History of Ontario, 
The United Empire Loyalist's Assn. of Canada. 

43. South Elmsley. James R Kennedy. 
Township of South Elmsley, Lombardy, Ontario 

44. Perth Courier Newspaper. Microfiche Records 
Algonquin College Library, Perth. 

45. The British Canadian Newspaper, Feb. 2, 1876, 
Eva Brook Donly Museum, Simcoe, Ontario. 

46. Ibid Oct. 3, 1866. 

47. Ibid Jan. 2, 1867. 

48. Ibid Jan. 16, 1867. 

49. Ibid July 24, 1867. 

50. Ibid Apr. 28, 1869. 

51. Ibid July 21, 1869. 

52. Simcoe and Norfolk County (1924), A Local History, 
Eva Brook Donly Museum, Simcoe, Ontario. 

53. The British Canadian Newspaper, Aug.25, 1869, 
Eva Brook Donly Museum, Simcoe, Ontario. 

54. Highways and By-ways of Freemasonry, J. P. Lawrence 

SPCL HS 397 L397-1954. Brock University, Special Collections. 

55. A Concise History of Freemasonry in Canada, 
Geo. J. Bennett SPC/HS557 S496. 

56. 10000 Famous Freemasons, Vol. 3 K-P 1959, William R Denslow. 

57. The History of Lake Lodge of Osher No. 85 1864-1989. 
Bro. A. J. Delaware, Queenstown, N.Z. 

58. The Critical Years, W.L. Morton. The Union of British North America 
1857-1973. McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 

59. Minutes. Markham Union Lodge No. 87, Markham, Ontario. 

60. Markham 1793-1900, Isabell Champion, Editor. 
The Markham District Historical Society. 

61. Markham Remembered, Mary B. Champion, Editor. 
The Markham District Historical Society. 

62. History of Markham (author unknown), 

Local History Collection, Markham Public Library. 

63. The Papers of the Prime Ministers, Vol. II, 

The Letters of Sir John A. Macdonald, 1858-1861, 
Public Archives of Canada 1869. 



286 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY (1844-1916) 

NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

by R.W.Bro. John Storey 

Preston -Hesp el er Masonic Temple 

Cambridge, Ontario 

September 18, 1996 



(The following paper is mainly based on Bro. Crawley's "Notes of Irish 
Freemasonry " - Nos. I to VIII as published in the Transactions of Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge No. 2076 and Volumes I - //, History of the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland.) 

During the course of my research into Irish Freemasonry in 
particular when trying to find the connection between the Old Irish 
Guilds and Freemasonry the name of W.J. Chetwode Crawley came up 
time and time again. I became most interested and found that Bro. 
Crawley had made a considerable contribution to Freemasonry in 
general and particularly Irish Freemasonry. His papers were very well 
received and were published by that well Known research Lodge the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 mainly in connection with 
Freemasonry in Ireland. I found 37 of his papers in the Transactions of 
that Lodge. 

His background was most interesting and the History of the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland Vol. II gives the following details: 

Bro. William John Chetwode Crawley Grand Treasurer, died 13th 
March 1916, in the seventy-second year of his age. He had a dis- 
tinguished career in Trinity College, and for many years before his 
death was a member of the Council of the University of Dublin, at 
which he was L.L.D. He was also D.C.L. of Durham and a Fellow of 
the Royal Geographical and of the Historical Societies. 

He was initiated, 9th August 1873, in Lodge No. 250, Dublin, 
Elected Grand Inner Guard in 1881, and also held high office in Great 
Priory, the Grand Chapter of Prince Masons, and the Ancient and 
Accepted Rite. For our Benevolent Funds his enthusiasm was unceasing, 
and exertions unflagging. 

But it is as a profound and scholarly student that his memory will 
be preserved, the first of Irish Masons to win International repute in that 
field. He was one of the first to be admitted, 2nd June 1667 to the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge after its formation, and year by year until his 
death, papers, many of fundamental importance, appeared in its 



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THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

Transactions. Other articles appeared in the Masonic press, not only in 
Great Britain, but the Colonies and abroad. 

His magnum opus "Caementaria Hibernica", being the Public 
Constitutions that have held together the Freemasons of Ireland, 1726- 
1807, appeared in three "Fasciculi", the first of which was published in 
1895, and represent, to cite his own words, fundamental research, 
whereby he cleared the ground and laid the foundations upon which the 
History of Irish Freemasonry might be reared. Subsequent scholars have 
gone to his work, sure of finding diligent research, cogent argument and 
sound conclusions, expressed in a masterly English style, the fruit of his 
fundamental training in the classics of Greece and Rome. (Vol. II p.252) 

As an indication as to the importance of Dr. Crawley's work the 
following paragraph from The Genesis of the Grand Lodge (History of 
Grand Lodge Volume II) serves as an introduction to The First Record: 

As lias been generally known since Dr. Crawley published his 
"Caementaria Hibernica", all die official records of the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland before the year 1760 and all the minute books before 1780 have 
been lost, so for what took place prior to the earlier date we are 
dependant for knowledge on external evidence. So far none has been 
discovered to enable us to say with certainty the exact year in which the 
Grand Lodge came into being: but, if one may begin a work such as 
this by hazarding a conjecture, die probability of some date in 1723 or 
1724 seems indicated. 

It is evident diat serious research and study into Freemasonry 
became more apparent, in the later part of last century. In about 1880 
a school arose, including Woodford, Gould, Hugham and Spedi and 
others in England, and Murray Lyon in Scodand. They applied the 
normal rules of historical criticism, no statement without proof, and 
rendered the subject worthy of the attention of serious students. In 
Ireland, Chetwode Crawley "widi pungent pen and mastery of language 
took rank with his colleagues in Great Britain and ceaselessly defended 
die claims of Ireland as one of die Modier Grand Lodges of the World". 
(Vol. II p.236) 

Crawley had a lot to do widi die establishment of a Masonic 
museum in connection with the G.L. of I. which is one of the most 
comprehensive I have ever seen. (Vol. II p.237) 

I was most impressed by die extent and dioroughness of Bro. 
Crawley's research. The following is an excerpt from Heron Lepper's 
book on die history of English and Irish Masonry (1920): 

But die man of die sword in die disturbed seventeendi century was 
not the only class attracted by the fraternity, the student and the divine 



288 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

also pressed in to partake of our mysteries, The industry of Bro. 
Crawley has disinterred from the archives of Old Trinity a most 
interesting document, which shows that speculative freemasonry was 
well known there in the year 1688, so well known as to be a fair mark 
for the ribald jokes of a certain A.B. who after the manner of Candidate 
Bachelors, held nothing sacred. (Vol.1 p36) 

The year is 1688. The place Trinity College, Dublin., Dr. Crawley 
wrote a number of papers and articles on die Irish Lady Freemason, C 
Elizabeth St. Leger; the synopsis of which states: 

Elizabeth St. Leger was the only daughter of die first Viscount. 
Doneraile. She was born in 1693, married in 1713, to Richard Alworth 
of Newmarket, Co. Cork, and died at the age of 80 in 1773. The 
tradition, which appeared for the first time in print in 181 1, states that 
whilst still a young unmarried girl she inadvertently became a witness 
to the proceedings of a Masonic Lodge held in her home at Doneraile 
House, and that being discovered she was forced by her father, who 
presided, to submit to initiation. Tradition, further states that all through 
her long life she was a patroness of the Craft (Vol. I p. 39) 

Now according to Bro. Crawley's Notes on Irish Freemasonry I, a 
supplementory note on the Lady Freemason QCC Vol. VIII, 1895, p.54- 
55, he further states: "The inconsistency of all the claims put forward 
on behalf of Regular Lodges goes to prove that the initiation took place 
in a non-regular lodge of a very early type" and concludes his very 
excellent paper as follows: 

As the lady was 17 years of age in 1710, and her girlhood ended on 
her marriage in 1713, we can reasonably hold that her initiation took 
place between those dates. 

It is worth while to recapitulate the deductions from the Lady 
Freemason's story that affects the general history of the Craft. 

First - There existed in 1710-1712 at Doneraile a speculative lodge 
of the English type. How many others still await discovery? 

Second - This Irish Lodge used methods of initiation, etc., not to be 
distinguished from those perpetuated at the Revival. 

Third - As die lady is admitted on all hands to have been F.C., the 
system in force before Grand Lodge comprised two degrees. 

The last deduction will require a deal of explaining a way on the 
part of those brethren who hold that, because early Scottish Operative 
Lodges suffered the ritual to dwindle into the merest mode of 
recognition, the early English Speculative Lodges cannot have worked 
more than one degree. 

hi his second paper on Notes on Irish Freemasonry II he brings to 



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THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

our notice comments on the Ancient Landmarks and remarks: the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland was the first, as far as he knew, to embody in its 
regulations an implicit recognition of the principle. Our Grand Lodge, 
on Nov. 3rd 1768 approved the following regulation: 

XXVII - No Army Lodge shall for the future make any townsman 
a Mason, where there is a registered lodge held in any town where such 
lodge do meet; and no town lodge shall make any man in the army a 
mason where there is a warranted lodge held in the regiment, troop, or 
company or in the quarters to which such a man belongs. (QCC 
Vol. VIII p.80/81) 

Apparently there are only three instances (two in England and one 
in France) that can be traced in which the G.L. of I., during its whole 
career has invaded the territories of another Grand Lodge. 

This brings up the question of recognition of the Grand Lodge of 
England by the Irish G.L. Apparently at no time did the G.L. of I. 
recognize the Moderns. When the G.L. of the Antients began its career, 
the majority of its adherents seem to have belonged to the lower middle 
classes. The disparity of the social conditions between these worthy 
brethren and the candidates for the Irish Bar who were eating their 
terms in the Middle Temple in 1754 will go far to explain why these 
Templars sought and obtained a warrant from their own Grand Lodge 
at Dublin. The Irish Work was so different from the ritual developed by 
the G.L. of the Moderns that these Irish students decided the desirability 
of being under the banner of their own G. L. (QCC Vol. VIII p.82/3). 

In 1773 the G.L. of France was completely disorganized. In the 
previous year the G.L. of France had been overthrown and the Grand 
Orient invented to usurp its functions. However I am not going into die 
complicated details of this fiasco. During this time the Grand Lodge of 
England warranted three lodges in France (1772/3). Not to be outdone 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland warranted a lodge in the small town of 
Beziers in 1773 - the only time a lodge under the G.L. of Ireland has 
ever worked on the Continent of Europe. Regrettably this lodge was 
cancelled by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1783. (QCC Vol. VIII, p. 
82/3). 

All this took place at a time of gradual growth (about the 1770s) 
and when Freemasonry was becoming organized throughout the world. 
This involved the introduction of the doctrine of Sovereign, Exclusive 
or Sole Jurisdiction. England gave its adherence to the doctrine of 
Sovereign Jurisdiction as early as 1770. Although the E.C. recognized 
the Sovereignty Jurisdiction of other Grand Lodges she did not insist 
nor force all lodges in England to sever their connections and throw in 



290 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

their lot with the new constitution. The Grand Lodge of Ireland has 
always heartily concurred with this position. 

But in America the doctrine was considerably extended. They 
insisted that when a new Grand Lodge was formed, all lodges within its 
territory must relinquish all connection with their "mother" constitution 
and were bound to join the new G.L. and if they did not they "became 
clandestine and out of the pale of Masonry". (QCC Vol II - 1895 p. 
83/4). 

It was in Crawley's Notes on Irish Freemasonry IV (1896) that I 
came upon mention of the Revival of 1717 and the development 
thereof. His appreciation of the research of those famous masonic 
historians Gould and Hughan which had arrived at conclusions 
previously unsuspected, e.g. he writes "we have been able to show that 
the Freemasonry current in Ireland both before and after the Revival 
was identical with that current in England at die same time". 
Furthermore that the researches of Bro. E.Conder have shown that the 
initiation of the lady Freemason in a speculative lodge must have taken 
place almost concurrently with the foundation of the Grand Lodge of 
England in the early 1700s. 

In his further researches into the Irish evidence he had succeeded 
in pushing a little further back the accredited date of the Royal Arch 
Degree and had brought to light the unexpected fact that the earliest 
known collation of the words "Royal Arch" in connection widi Masonry 
is to be found in the contemporary account of the proceedings of a 
lodge at Yongal in 1743. (QCC Vol. IX -1896 p.4/5 

hi his Memorial of Lodge No. 84 he quotes the recorder of the 
lodge records, Bro. Bennett, concerning some stories about "Old 84" 
which are not lacking in a certain kind of humour - though they 'sin' 
somewhat against the canons of modern taste - they are transcribed here 
in his own words "so that his transgressions and merits may be on his 
own head." 

An inquisitive fellow, who said he had caught the tyler asleep one 
night on his post avered that he peeped dirough the keyhole, and saw 
the brethren inside walking in procession round a big black jug, whilst 
a skeleton sat, under each light, and played "The Boyne Water" upon 
a skull with a pair of cross bones. Another, who said he looked through 
a crevice in the floor of the room overhead, stated that each of the 
members used to go three times to the corner of the lodgeroom, where 
a voice used to speak to them out of a coffin and to a married man 
would say "Fear God, honour the king, and be a good husband and 
father" — and to a single man, after lecturing him a good deal, always 



291 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

concluded by telling him above all things never to marry a Papist. 

The ordeal of the poker has had at all times great terrors for the 
uninitiated: 

Some years ago, a gentleman whom we shall call Mr. B, was 
balloted for and accepted as a candidate for Masonic honours. He was 
duly noticed to be present at the Devonshire Anns on a certain day for 
initiation, and he attended. As he ascended die staircase, ominous 
knocks and mutterings of distant thunder caught his ear, and by no 
means helped to allay the fears which had possessed him during the 
greater part of the previous week. Arriving on the landing, he gently 
asked the tyler may he gain; but the redoubtable Dick Baylie would not 
even allow him to put his nose inside the scarlet curtain which hung 
some feet in front of the lodge door. Even the dress the tyler wore 
appeared in harmony with the sanguinary and mysterious deeds that 
were said to have been perpetrated within. A huge red cloak covered 
him to the very toes; the large sleeves which hung below his hands 
terminated in cuffs of orange velvet, on each side of which was a 
representation of a skull and crossbones in lustrous black; the blue 
collar had on it moons and stars of bright yellow, and candlesticks, 
compasses and other cabalistic symbols of the Craft, nearly covered it. 
with odd- looking devices. On his head was a gigantic cocked hat, which 
would almost have served him for a boat, it was so large. This was 
surmounted with blue and red feathers, and in his hand was a flaming 
falchion (a short, broad sword). "Keep off" said the terrible Dick, as the 
bewildered candidate moved forward a step or two, "or before you can 
say 'domine salvum me fae', I'll run you through the gullet". 

Mr. B, not caring to encounter so fierce-looking an opponent, went 
downstairs, and after strolling about for a little time, sauntered into the 
kitchen. A roaring fire was down at the time, and the covers which lay 
an the various cooking utensils kept up a perpetual trotting match with 
one another, as if to see which of diem would be on die floor first; but 
the monstrous poker - more than half of which looked soft and white 
with the glow of intense heat fixed his attention at once. "Ah! well,. 
Johanna" said the victim, addressing the cook in an assumed indifferent 
tone, "what do you want the big poker for?" 

"Faith, sir," replied the latter, looking very thoughtful, "I'm afraid 
I'll get into a scrape about that same poker!" "Why so?". "Because, by 
some mistake, their own was taken up to the farm, and put as a prop 
under the loft where the master keeps the oats for the horses, and I 
expect they'll never be satisfied with this piece of wire!" Looking 
contemptuously at the great poker. "And who is it that-that-that wants 



292 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

such a thing at all?" falteringly inquired poor Mr. B. Why the 
Freemasons, sir, to be sure The doctor ran down to me a while ago, and 
told me to be quick, as they were going to make a Mason immediately, 
and many is the one I have reddened for them before; but I suppose 
they will kill me entirely now!" "And why wouldn't that poker do-do 
them" "Yerra ! Is it that knitting needle? Whist! by gor, here they are!" 
as the door was heard to bang upstairs 

Pressing his hat on his forehead, the applicant for Masonic honours 
shot out of the kitchen like a flash of lightning and fleeing through the 
open door, he bounded the limestone steps, and ran for his life. 

"Come back!" roared the cook; "Hould him" cried the boots. 

"Catch him" shouted the waiter, but away he sped faster than 
before, when the fellows who lounged on the steps, and who to do them 
justice, were never averse to a bit of fun, got an inkling of what 
occurred, they gave tongue with a vengeance, and some of them even 
gave chase. But they might as well try and overtake a telegraphic 
message alonq the wires. The frightened candidate was soon out of sight 
and from that day to the present, no one has ever seen him in that 
locality. (QCC. Vol. IX p.9) 

(The odd costume of the Tyler, was described in the forgoing 
passage requires a word of explanation. Though it seemed to present 
nothing unusual to Bro Bennett, who was doubtless familiar with it 
from his first entry into the lodge. The emblems an the cloak referred 
not only to the Craft but to the Royal Arch and Templar Degrees, so 
that the one garment could be used by the Janitor (Tyler or Outer 
Guard) no matter which of the degrees was being worked. The robe was 
a survival when Craft Lodges in Ireland were accustomed to confer die 
Royal Arch and Templar Degrees without any authorization other than 
that which they considered their Craft Warrant to bestow on them. The 
practice was general throughout Ireland at the close of the last century 
and held its ground during the early part of the present century. During 
that time the so-called Irish Rite consisted of the Craft, Royal Arch and 
Templar Degrees, though there was no central authority, such as Grand 
Chapter or Great Priory, to control the grades beyond the Craft. Nor 
were these latter, at any time formally controlled by our Grand Lodge. 

The philosophical reflection with which Bro. Bennet. closed his 
annals of "Old 84" seems to us to be pertinent and well-expressed. His 
final words were: 

"Masonry has been much on the increase of late years , Men are 
more anxious than heretofore to congregate where they can enjoy one 
another's friendship and society irrespective of creed and party; and 



293 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

where they can spend their evenings more profitably than in taxing their 
ingenuity to discover a religious or political grievance. 

"Another excellent department of Masonry is that which is devoted 
to Charity. Out of their abundance there are but few who do not give 
cheerfully to a fund, out of which a brother less fortunate than 
themselves can be assisted to get on his legs again, and again, and 
again, to fight the great battle of Life; and should he fall in the struggle 
a fraternal hand will tend to his orphans until they are ready to enter the 
great conflict, and battle for themselves. 

"So long as Freemasons adhere to the Divine Precept which teaches 
peace and goodwill among men - and it has been their guiding star ever 
since their Venerable Institution had a beginning - so long may they 
continue to smile at those tissue-paper thunderbolts which occasionally 
illumine the darkness of our daily press." (QCC Vol.IX p. 10) 

The diversity of Bro. Crawley's interests are quite phenomenal. His 
Notes on Irish Freemasonry V gives details of the oldest known 
Masonic Jewel, i.e. the Sackville Medal, which was struck in com- 
mendation to the foundation of a Lodge in Florence by Lord Charles 
Sackville, Duke of Middlesex, in the year 1733. Bro. Crawley in his 
paper gives evidence for the authenticity of the medal. His arguments 
for and against make most interesting reading in (QCC Vol. XIII - 1900 
p. 142-9). He winds up his paper as follows: "The evidence goes to 
show the medal was struck to commemorate the connection of Charles 
Sackville with a Lodge of Freemasonry at Florence in 1733 and we had 
found that such a Lodge was at work as early as 1730 and sufficiently 
active to attract public attention." 

Bro. Crawley's Notes on Irish Freemasonry VI (1902) goes into the 
whole history of the Wesley family which includes the famous Duke of 
Wellington. In this paper we can only touch on some of the details of 
that amazing family and I believe you would be interested in die 
following excerpt from it. 

This article tells the story of the Wesley family and their interest in 
Freemasonry in Ireland; not the least of which we have mentioned about 
Colonel the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. (QCC: -Vol. 
XV- p. 106). 

Garrett Wesley, the 1st Earl of Mornington, was Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1776. He was a great musician and won 
a Doctor of Music degree from the University of Dublin. His four sons 
were indeed famous in their own right and were rewarded for their 
services to the state by attaining seats in the House of Lords. The third 
son was the Duke of Wellington who was initiated in 1790 in Lodge 



294 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

Trim which met in Dangan Castle. Incidently he did not use the 
surname of "Wellesley" until he was 29 years of age (QCC. Vol. XV 
p. 108) 

I am not going to go into all the details of all that family's 
connection with Masonry but I'd like to pass an to you a story of a 
close friend of the Rev John Wesley. The Rev. Charles Graham, a 
zealous preacher who visited Mallaw and preached an open-air sermon 
chanced to take up his position beneath die windows of a room where 
a lodge was meeting. The brethren could not but hear the preacher's 
voice. Having closed die Lodge, they lingered on, attracted by his 
fervour. "They grew intent on the service, and at its close, respectfully 
requested the preacher to enter the lodge room. He, accordingly, says his 
biographer, with a somewhat clumsy, though well intentioned adaptation 
of Masonic phraseology, "Ascended the Ladder, laid Justice to the Rule, 
and Righteousness to the Plummet, and Squared-off at least one Living 
Stone for our Spiritual Building; and, by so doing, made a sure name 
for our Ministers in coming years, whereby a whole family became 
partakers of the Grace of Eternal Life." 

It is well apparent from his paper on the Wesley Family that W.J. 
Chetwode Crawley did extensive research. It covers pages 100 to 124 
in QCC Vol.XV (1902) and makes very good reading for students of 
that period of Irish Masonic history. 

hi his Notes on Irish Freemasonry No. VII (1903) Bro. Crawley 
discusses Irish Masonic Certificates. He comments that the earliest 
known Masonic Certificates are Irish and that the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland was the first to issue such documents, and to authenticate diem 
under its Seal. When Laurence Dermott's standing as a Freemason was 
challenged in 1757, he proved that he had been "Regularly Installed 
Master of the good Lodge No. 26 in the Kingdom of Ireland, upon the 
4th day of June 1746", and "produced a certificate (signed Edwd. Spratt 
G.S.) under the Seal of the Grand Lodge of Ireland of his goad 
behaviour and servitude, etc. etc. etc." (QCC Vol. XVI 1903 p.69). 

However, the first Grand Lodge to authorize the issue of an 
engraved or priiited form of certificate was the Grand Lodge of the 
Moderns which passed a resolution to that effect in 1756. The comment 
attached was that "this forced the Grand Lodge to recognize the general 
utility of Certificates as a means of distinguishing the sheep from the 
goats. 

An interesting note is that nothing is more astonishing than the hold 
Freemasonry had an Ireland in the early 1800s. "It is not that every city 
and town could boast its Lodge or Lodges, but that no village or hamlet 



295 



THE HERITAGE L DGE PR CEEDINGS - 1996 

was without one." Furthermore apparently the prevalence of private 
lodge certificates was such as to induce tradesmen to keep blank forms 
in stock. (QCC Vol. XVI p. 70/71) 

On Page 72 (QCC Vol. XVI) our learned Bro. Crawley comments 
on "The Sequence of Degrees" He is of the opinion that even in those 
days (the early 1700s) that there are solid grounds for believing that the 
Holy Royal Arch Degree to have once formed part of the Craft Work. 
But that there are no grounds for assuming that the Degree of High 
Knight Templar to have had any connection with the Craft or its Work. 

His explanation of the History of the Royal Arch Degree is indeed 
most interesting. Apparently no differences can be traced between the 
English and Irish work prior to 1730. The "alterations" engendered by 
die need or by the convenience of the lodges of London and West- 
minster failed to take root in Dublin. The Irish ritual represents, with 
the vicissitudes inoperable from oral transmissions and has represented 
all along, the work of 1723-1730. The brethren who, in England, held 
fast to the old standards, were, in Ireland, called "York Masons" to 
distinguish them from their more progressive brethren, the London and 
Wesmiinster Masons, who formed the Regular Grand Lodge (the 
Moderns). 

The earliest known occurrence of the words Royal Arch is met with 
in a report of die procession of the Yonglial Lodge on St. John's Day 
7th December, 1743. The earliest Minute of the Royal Arch degree, so 
far discovered, occurs in the transaction-book of the famous Virginian 
Lodge that initiated the great Geo. Washington. (QCC Vol XVI p 73). 

Apparent our learned Brother Crawley had considerable difficulty 
in tracing details about the High Knight Templars in Ireland. The oldest 
dated mention of die High Knight Templars is to be found in the Dublin 
Daily newspaper of 1774 in which immediately before St. John's Day 
in Summer 1774 the following advertisement appeared: 

ADVERTISEMENT 

The Knight Templars of Ireland, Royal Arch, Excellent and Super- 
Excellent Free and Accepted Masons, Lodge No. 506, intend dining 
together at their Lodge room, at the Thatched Cabin, Castle Street, on 
Friday the 4th instant; to celebrate the Festival of St. John; Such of the 
Fraternity as choose to Dine with them as request to leave their name 
at die Bar two days before. - Signed by Order, J.O. E.G.S. 

"Dinner to be on the table at Four o'clock" (QCC Vol XVI p 76) 
He concludes his excellent paper on Page 79 (QCC Vol XVI) as 
follows: 

"The thread of gossip, on which Irish Certificates hang, has led us 



296 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

far afield. But enough has been said, to show the importance of diese 
sidelights on the History of Freemasonry". 

Incidently on that same final page (79) is an Appendix which gives 
a note on the earliest references to the Masonic Knight Templar Degree 
by Sir Charles A. Cameron, Deputy Grand Master of the Order of the 
Temple in Ireland. He states that the earliest exact reference to the K.T. 
Degree was contained in the Minute of the St. Andrew's Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons (an American Chapter) for August 28, 1769, 
although there have been references to the working of that degree prior 
to diat date. 

References to Early Irish Certificates on pages 81-84 of QCC 
Vol. XVI gives details of the texts of some of those early certificates. 

Bro. Crawley has given me a number of surprises. Not the least of 
which is his excellent paper on "The Compact of July 1814" which I 
discovered in The Irish Lodge of Research No. 10. Autumn 1995. 

Towards the close of the 1700s the Grand Lodge of England 
(Moderns) came to stand isolated among English-speaking Grand 
Lodges. Having found favour in the eyes of the aristocracy but lost die 
confidence of the great numerical majority of the brethren of the 
English race to which the Antients catered. These two English Grand 
Lodges the Moderns (formed in 1717) and the Antients (formed 1751) 
apparently settled what to us now appear to have been trivial differences 
through The Act of Union of 1813. 

However, as a consequence of the previous estrangement, a formal 
International Compact became necessary to admit the newly formed 
United Grand Lodge of England to the fold. It is interesting to note that 
the sister Grand Lodges solidly backed die Antients G.L. which was the 
younger of the two. Hence the conference which was held in June and 
July 1814 at which the Irish and Scottish representatives ascertained by 
"strict Masonic examination", that the "Three Grand Lodges were 
perfectly in unison" on Esoteric ritual, or, as they phrased it "on matters 
which can neither be written nor described." 

According to Bro. Crawley the INTERNATIONAL COMPACT can 
claim to be the most important official document promulgated among 
English-speaking Freemasons during the present century. 

I would like to be able to go into the detail of this superb document 
which was signed by representatives of all three Grand Lodges. Perhaps 
two of the more important clauses cover die recognition of the Holy 
Royal Arch and the Right of a Mason to visit but so have his Brethren 
the right to exclude him if he does not conform to the conditions laid 
down by the jurisdiction he visits. 



297 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

I have written a short paper on the International Compact which I 
shall be pleased to attach to this paper as an appendix. 

I had no idea that relations between the Grand Lodge of Ireland and 
the Grand Lodge of Pennslvania in the Eighteenth Century had been so 
close until I read with keen interest Bro. Crawley's Notes on Irish 
Freemasonry Vol. VIII. (QCC. Vol. XVII - 1904 p. 137). The following 
excerpt may be of particular -interest: 

"The historical fact that the Grand Lodges of Ireland and 
Pennsylvania were united in close and sympathetic regard over the 
grave of George Washington, had dropped out of common knowledge 
on both sides of the Atlantic, till it was once more brought to light by 
the Deputy Grand Master of Ireland. Yet the circumstance was itself 
remarkable. The generation in which it took place was still the gen- 
eration that had been sundered by the great war that has stood for one 
side as the War of Independence, and for the other side as the War of 
Revolution. The men who had won and the men who had lost joined 
hands and hearts over the grave of the great soldier and greater 
statesman that had led the winners to victory and had forced the losers 
to defeat. Many of the men who thus joined hands and hearts had taken 
an actual share in the struggle. Can any human society show in its 
annals a more striking instance of mutual forbearance and good will?" 
(QCC. Vol. XVII p. 139). 

It would seem that the close relationship between Ireland and the 
USA was due in no small measure to that famous Quaker and statesman 
William Perm (1644-1718) who was the founder of Pennsylvania and 
whose family owned property in Ireland at that time and still do to this 
day. It is worthy of note when the era of Grand Lodges, began the first 
Deputy Grand Master of Munster, founded in Cork in 1726, was 
Sprigett Perm, grandson of William Penn. (QCC. Vol VII p. 144) 

Tradition adds a link to the chain of kindly associations between 
General Washington and the Grand Lodge of Ireland. Apparently the 
general of the Revolutionary Army held fraternal intercourse with the 
brethren of an Irish Army Lodge. (A Lodge in a regiment was 
essentially an Irish conception. This I am sure was due to die fact that 
by the beginning of the 1800s practically every city, town, village and 
hamlet had its own lodge). QCC Vol XVII p. 145) 

The fame of George Washington is so indissolubly blended with the 
Independence of the United States that there is danger of forgetting that 
the Freemasonry which admitted him was British Freemasonry. Twenty- 
five years before the Declaration of Independence was signed, Major 
George Washington, adjutant general for the district, was initiated in 



298 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

Time Immemorial Lodge held at Fredricksburg (1751), in "His Britannic 
Majesty's Ancient and Loyal Colony and Dominion of Virginia. "British 
Freemasonry has reason to be proud of the impression retained by His 
Excellency General George Washington, First President of the United 
States. (QCC Vol XVII p 146). 

APPENDIX - THE INTERNATIONAL COMPACT OF JULY 1814 

An article appeared in the No. 10 Autumn 1995 edition of The 
Masonic Lodge of Research, Lodge 200 Magazine. This article was 
written by WJ. Chetwode Crawley towards the end of the 1800s. 

It was only after re-reading this article two or three times that I 
began to realize its vital importance to our Craft. 

I had not realized how much we Masons actually owe to die 
assistance and support of our Royal Family. Within 20 years after 
foundation of the First Grand Lodge (1717) the heir to the British 
crown was initiated into the Brotherhood. From that day to diis, the 
Princes of Her Majesty's Royal House have been foremost in 
encouraging the Craft, "not thinking it any lessening to their Imperial 
dignities to level themselves with their Brethren in Freemasonry, and to 
act as they did." As you know the Grand Master of the United Grand 
Lodge of England is the Duke of Kent, cousin of the Queen. I was 
privileged to be at his enthronement in 1968. 

Perhaps this should be kept in mind in these days when our 
monarchy is under fire and there are demands to eliminate a system 
which has survived many hundreds of years through troublous times, 
major wars, depressions, civil wars, good kings, bad kings as well as 
some excellent queens, etc. etc. 

As I did not intend to elucidate on the Royal Family but rather to 
give you a few thoughts as to why it makes no difference whether the 
visiting brother hails from the English, Scottish or the Irish Constitution. 
He is received on a footing of fraternal equality, and finds himself at 
home in any lodge in the British Isles or in any lodge of Constitutions 
in amity therewith. 

There were problems in the 1700s between factions until 1813 
when the Moderns joined the Antients. The Act of Union, by which this 
was accomplished is indeed most remarkable. The perspective of a 
hundred years enables us to see the comparative triviality of the differ- 
ences that estranged our forefathers in the Craft. Incidently according 
to Pick & Knight the result of the deliberations and negotiations 
between the Moderns (1717-1813) and the Antients (1751-1813) in the 
Act of Union (1813) was that the final working ritual adopted by the 



299 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

United Grand Lodge was mainly that of the Antients; which was 
responsible for the introducing of some apparendy much-needed 
revisions (i.e. warranting of a new lodge, etc). 

In actual fact, the United Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and 
Accepted Masons was only formed by the Act of Union in 1813. The 
Grand Lodge of England or The Grand Lodge of the Moderns as it was 
called in those days was formed in 1717. 

Just prior to the Act of Union (1805) the Moderns had under its 
wing 55 1 lodges of which only 355 were in the British Isles; the Grand 
Lodge of the Antients had 258 lodges on its books whilst the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland claimed 815 lodges and the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
had 284 on its roll (a total of 1,908 working lodges on the registers of 
the four Grand Lodges. 

It was in consequence of the past differences between the Antients 
and the Moderns a formal International Compact became necessary to 
admit the newly formed United Grand Lodge of England into the fold 
of Grand Lodges. 

An international conference was held in London during June and 
July 1814. The Irish and Scottish representatives ascertained by "strict 
Masonic examination" that the Three Grand Lodges were perfectly in 
unison on esoteric ritual, or as they phrased it, "on matters which can 
neither be written nor described." The Irish and Scottish representatives 
have made certain of the conformity of the United Grand Lodge 
included a statement to this effect in the preamble to their record of all 
their deliberations and treated the fact as a basis for admitting the new 
Grand Lodge to the full fraternal reciprocity of Grand Lodges. It is the 
document by which this was accomplished which we shall now all too 
briefly discuss. 

Bro. Crawley states The International Compact, can claim to be die 
most important official document promulgated among English-speaking 
Freemasons during the present century. In fact all lodges in the British 
Colonies and in the United States of America were affected either 
directly or indirecdy by the International Compact entered into by their 
Mother Lodges. 

The actual document called International Compact between the 
Grand Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland concluded July 1814 
"which is in the hands of the Grand Lodge of Ireland and which it is 
said is still in force to diis day." 

The object was to setde points of communion, intercourse and 
fraternization among the three Grand Lodges, to ascertain the identity 
of Obligation, Description, Discipline! and Practice, and to form such 



300 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

Regulations for the maintenance, security and promoting of the craft. 

Upon a strict Masonic examination on matters "which can be 
neither written nor described", it was ascertained that the three Grand 
Lodges were perfectly in unison in all the great and essential points of 
the Mystery and Craft according to the immemorial traditions and 
uninterrupted usage of Ancient Masons and they recognized this unity 
in a fraternal manner. 

They came to a unanimous conclusion that the following resolutions 
be accepted: 

1. Ancient Masonry consists of three Degrees and no more viz.-E.A., 
F.C. and M.M. including the Supreme Chapter of the Holy Royal Arch. 
(Incidently after the Union in 1813 and the conclusion of this Compact 
the Antients and Moderns lost no time in adopting the famous 
declaration that the Royal Arch was part of the Three Degrees of pure 
Ancient Freemasonry); 

2. That constant and fraternal intercourse, correspondence and com- 
munion be forever maintained ... so that they may all examine, discuss 
and concur in such resolutions as may be judged essential to the 
security and welfare of the Craft; 

3. That as the Eternal Truths upon which Masonry was originally 
founded can be neither changed or improved - it is their solemn 
determination by strict adherence to the simplicity, purity and Order of 
the Ancient Traditions and Principles to entitle the Fraternity in the 
United Kingdom to the continued protection of every wise and 
enlightened government; 

4. That each Grand Lodge shall preserve its own limits, and no Warrant 
shall be granted or revived by any one of these parties for the holding 
of a Lodge within the jurisdiction of either of the others; 

5. That for the security of intercourse, to guard the funds of 
Benevolence from irregular and improper applications for relief; 

6. That it being of vital importance to the well-being of the Craft for the 
Ancient Rules for the initiation of members be most strictly and 
peremptorily observed, not only as to moral character of the individuals 
to be admitted but as to their knowledge in their gradual advancement, 
that the three Grand Lodges and their Lodges shall enjoin the necessity 
of conforming to these rules and no exception without dispensation from 
the Grand Master; 

7. The undersigned call upon all brethren to attend most particularly to 
these resolutions, the importance of which must be known to the 
Fraternity in general, it should be known all over the surface of the 
globe that their principles, absolutely discountenancing in all their 



301 



THE HERITAGE LODGE PROCEEDINGS - 1996 

meetings every question that could have the remotest tendency to excite 
controversy in matters of religion or any political discussion whatever, 
and to have no other object, but to encourage and further every moral 
and virtuous sentiment, and also of nurturing most particularly the 
warmest calls of Universal Benevolence and Mutual Charity one 
towards another. It is this conviction which has procured them, for ages, 
the protection and esteem of mighty monarchs and princes who have 
favoured us with their presence in our midst; 

8. That these resolutions be reported to the Three Grand Lodges, 
entered into the records thereof, and printed and circulated to all die 
lodges holding of them respectively. 

(Entries on the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Ireland 1st 
December 1814 — the above are extracts from these Minutes) 

According the History of the G.L. of Ireland Vol.11 (page 23) on 
this subject these articles are extremely important. At the same time 
they are a memorial to a reconciliation that ended the Masonic quarrel 
that had been causing much confusion and bitterness for two 
generations, and also a code of International Masonic Laws. Many of 
these Laws had a traditional force before they were now promulgated 
as "Landmarks". What our predecessors bound themselves to observe 
at this momentous conference is still binding on us today. It regulates 
the rights and duties of a Brother of any of the Three Grand Lodges 
when a sojourner (a Mason away from home) in the land of the 
stranger, where yet there is a home awaiting him in every regular 
Lodge. At the same time the Fifdi Resolution gave quite a shock to 
certain Masonic theorists who have run wild over the "inherent right." 
of a Mason to visit. No doubt he has such a right, but so have his 
brethren a right to exclude him if he does not conform to the conditions 
laid down by the jurisdiction he visits. 

That part of the Sixth Resolution which enjoins careful enquiry into 
the character of the candidates has borne good fruit particularly in 
Ireland. 

As we attach paramount importance to the moral and social 
requisites for initiation so we attach diminishing importance to the 
physical requirements. Now that Freemasonry is a society for the 
cultivations of moral and social virtues, it is the intellectual and spiritual 
equipment of the Candidate that should be mainly regarded. 

The comment on the last Resolution is to me most interesting. 
Personally I had not been aware of the International Compact in all my 
years in Freemasonry. So this is one of the most important Masonic 
Instruments I have ever come across. Bro. Crawley states that in spite 



302 



BRO. CHETWODE CRAWLEY'S NOTES ON IRISH FREEMASONRY 

of the resolution calling for the printing and circulating this most 
important document "no one in Ireland seems to have seen a copy of 
the International Compact in print". I wonder how many of our brethren 
in Canada have seen a copy? In fact I have had a look through the 
Canadian, English and Scottish Constitutions as well as Harry Carr's 
"The Freemason at Work" and can find no reference to this Compact. 
Can anyone advise me why it seems to have been dropped completely 
except in Irish Freemasonry? 

According the Pick & Knight "although the last of the Resolutions 
ordered the circulation of the International Compact to all Lodges under 
the Rule of the three Grand Lodges the only known official record of 
it in full is found in the minutes of the Irish Grand Lodge." 

The G.L. of Ireland was to discover the benefit of the Compact 
almost at once. It was used immediately to combat the movement by 
English Provincial Grand Lodges trying to claim authority over Irish 
Lodges inside their bailiwick 

Perhaps this Compact did much to bring the Royal Arch out into 
the open. This degree had been part of the normal ritual in Irish Lodges 
for quite some time. The Supreme R.A. Chapter is said to have been 
introduced by the Moderns (i.e during the period 1717-1813) but this is 
the subject for another paper. 

I must add that I am most grateful to the Irish republishing the 
International Compact and the introduction thereto by Brother Crawley. 
Perhaps it would be most helpful for it to be given more publicity than 
apparently it has had in the past. 



303 



MEMORIAL SERVICE 
For The Late R.W.Bro. 

EDGAR GORDON BURTON 

Past Grand Junior Warden 
Junior Deacon, The Heritage Lodge No. 730 



(Prepared by RW.Bro. Arthur W. Watson, Chaplain) 

Presented by W.Bro. John F. Sutherland 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730 G.R.C. 

May 11, 1996 

In the 90th Psalm we read 

O Lord, thou hast searched me and known me! Thou knowest when 
I sit down and when I rise up! Thou discernest my thoughts from afar. 
Thou searchest out my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with 
all my ways. Even before a word is on my tongue, lo, O Lord, thou 
knowest it altogether. Thou dost beset me behind and before, and layest 
thy hand upon me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me: it is high 
I cannot attain it. 

Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or whither shall I flee from thy 
presence? If I ascend to heaven, thou art there! If I make my bed in 
si ico 1, thou art there! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the 
uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy 
right hand shall hold me. 

How precious to me are thy thoughts, O God! How vast is the sum 
of them! If I would count them, they are more than the sand. When I 
awake, I am still with thee. 

And in the Wisdom of Solomon we read: 

The souls of the righteous are in the hand of God, and no torment 
will ever touch them. In the eyes of the foolish them seem to have died, 
and departure was thought to be an affliction and their going from us 
to be their destruction; but they are at peace. Their reward is with the 
Lord; and the Most High takes care of them. 

This evening we would remember the life and service of R.W.Bro. 
Edgar Gordon Burton. Ted was a Past Master of Harcourt Lodge No. 
581 in Toronto District 5; in 1983 he was elected Grand Junior Warden 
and served with distinction; he entered the line of officers in The 
Heritage Lodge and was Junior Deacon. He passed to the Grand Lodge 
Above suddenly on November 20th, 1995. 



304 



As we remember his life and his dedication to Masonry, shall we 
rise and observe a moment of silence in his memory. 

Minute of Silence 

They have triumphed who have died; 

They have passed the porches wide, 

Leading from the house of night 

To the splendid lawns of light. 

They have gone on that far road 

Leading up to their abode, 
And from the curtained casements 

We watch their going wistfully. 
They have won, for they have read 

The bright secrets of the dead; 

And they gain the deep unknown, 

Hearing life's strange undertone. 

In the race across the days 
They are victors; theirs the praise, 

Theirs the glory and the pride - 
They have triumphed, having died! 

Prayer: 

O thou Great Architect of the Universe, we bless you that those 
who rest in you, who have passed forward from this world's twilight 
into the full noontide glory of your presence, have evermore immortal 
life in you. 

We thank you that, with their frail flesh, they have laid by forever 
the weakness and weariness, the despondency and gloom, wherewith the 
human flesh ever overshadows the undying spirit. We thank you that, 
in laying by the flesh, they have laid by forever all care, all grief, all 
fallibility, all that hampered your life within them. 

We thank you that they are free from all the toils and snares 
whereby we, in this world, are enmeshed, from all coldness of heart, all 
failures of ideals, all coming short of the glory of God. We thank you 
that they have put on immortal freshness of spirit, immortal and 
unquenchable love, poured forth freshly forever. 

We thank you also that we may share with them in their eternal joy, 
putting on morning by morning the fresh robes of your life within our 
souls. Amen. So Mote It Be 



305 



MEMORIAL SERVICE 

For The Late R.W.Bro. 

MICHAEL GEORGE BRELLISFORD 

December 19, 1948 - September 11, 1996 

Grand Senior Warden 
Junior Steward, The Heritage Lodge No. 730 



Conducted by R.W.Bro. Rev. Dr. R. Cerwyn Davies (Past Grand Chaplain) 

September 18, 1996 

"O magnify the Lord with me and let us exalt his name together, for the 
Lord He is good and his mercies endure forever." 

Michael George Brellisford was our brother, a man who 'lived respected 
and died regretted,' a man who in his life was worthy of our esteem and 
admiration both as a member of our Craft, and a member of the family of 
human beings; a man who in his death is worthy of our highest esteem and 
respect and our deepest feelings of loss and grief. 

When we contemplate the suddenness of his departure from our midst, we 
are faced with the frailty and uncertainty of life! 

Job looked at life and came to the conclusion that: 

"Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. He 
comes forth like a flower and is cut down, he flees also as a shadow, 
and continues not." 

The Psalmist sees more hope and offers a little more consolation when he 

said: 

"Like as a father pities his children, so the Lord pities those that fear 
him. For he knows our frame, he remembers that we are dust. 
"As for man, his days are as grass: as a flower o the field, so he 
flourishes, for the wind passes over it and it is gone, but the mercy of 
the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him and 
his righteousness unto children's children." 

Thank God that He hides tomorrow from us! If we could envision the 
future, life would be unbearable. 



306 



From the time of Jesus it took 1,500 years for man to double his 
knowledge, then he doubled it again in another 500 years, and now as we 
prepare to enter the next millennium, knowledge doubles itself in less than 
ten years. Yet of the fundamentals of life we are still as illiterate as the 
earliest of our forefathers! There are some questions to which there seems 
to be no answer. 

What then? Where do we go when the realm of intelligence and knowledge 
fails us? We enter into the world of faith! That world which knows no 
boundaries and has no fence! 

"For only he may stand serene 

Who has a faith on which to lean " 
There are those who will tell us that such things as religion and faith are 
mere crutches which helped man as he learned to walk and take his place 
in the scheme of things. Man is now grown up and no longer needs these 
crutches! 

Is that so? Well I sure need them, for they and they alone can offer me an 
explanation why a man like Mike Brellisford is cut down in the prime of 
his life!! Only they can offer me the hope that there is more to the life of 
Michael George Brellisford that we knew, than the fulfilling, yet inadequate 
years he shared with us here on earth. 

Only they can offer me the hope that when Michael said "Goodnight" here, 
he was already facing the dawning of a new day which knows no night! 
When comes to us all a call from above 
To enter right into God's kingdom of love, 
When free from the woes that on earth we must bear 
We'll say "Good night" here, but "Good morning" up there! 

To God be the glory for the "day" we shared as brother Masons with 
Michael. May his memory linger long in our hearts, and may his soul live 
forever in the fellowship of the Most High, to whom be glory now and 
always. 

Let us pray: 

O Lord, support us all the clay long of our troublous life until the shadows 
lengthen and the evening comes, and the busy world is hushed, and the 
fever of life is over, and our work is done. Then in Thy mercy grant us a 
safe lodging and a holy rest, and peace at the last. Amen. 

So mote it be. 



307 



OUR DEPARTED BRETHREN 

We have been notified of the following members of 

Ttie Heritage Lodge No. 730 G.R.C. 

Wlw have Passed to the Grand Lodge Above 

(since previous publication of names of our deceased) 



R.W.Bro. MICHAEL GEORGE BRELLISFORD, Toronto 

York Lodge No. 156, G.R.C., Toronto 

September 11, 1996 

W.Bro. ALEXANDER SCOTT BUNTING, Ajax 
Wexford Lodge No. 683, G.R.C., Scarborough 

April 11, 1996 

R. W.Bro. EDGAR GORDON BURTON, Nobleton 

Harcourt Lodge No. 581, G.R.C., Toronto 

November 20, 1995 

V. W.Bro. ELMER R. DAVIES, Toronto 

Georgina Lodge No. 343, G.R.C., Toronto 

March 7, 1996 

V. W.Bro. CYRIL LAVERNE DAWDY, Hamilton 

Thistle Lodge No. 250, G.R.C. 

May 17, 1996 

W.Bro. BRIAN FERRY, Brechin 
Lake Shore Lodge No. 645, G.R.C., Etobicoke 

May 17, 1995 

Bro. BALWINDER SINGH GILL, Burlington 
Wellington Square Lodge No. 725, G.R.C., Burlington 

August 3, 1995 

W.Bro. STANLEY THOMAS HALLIWELL, Guelph 
Guelph Lodge No. 258, G.R.C., Guelph 

1996 



308 



OUR DEPARTED BRETHREN 



R.W.Bro. LEONARD RICHARD HERTEL, Cambridge 

Preston Lodge No. 297, G.R.C., Cambridge 

February 15, 1996 

R.W.Bro. JACK HUGHES, Kirkfield 

Victoria No. 398, G.R.C., Kirkfield 

March 18, 1996 

V.W.Bro. KENNETH HUGHES, Tottenham 

Harmony Lodge No. 438, Thornhill 

July 27, 1996 

W.Bro. ZOLTAN ABRAHAM LAZAR, Richmond Hill 

King Solomon's Lodge No. 22, G.R.C., Toronto 

February 20, 1995 

R. W.Bro. CECIL SEYMOUR McKNIGHT, St. Catharines 

Macnab Lodge No. 169, G.R.C., Port Colborne 

January 21, 1995 

V.W.Bro. RONALD GEORGE AUGUST MINK, Midland 

Caledonian Lodge No. 249, G.R.C., Midland 

February 19, 1996 

W.Bro. JOHN ALBERT STONES, Windsor 

Rose Lodge No. 500, G.R.C., Windsor 

November 4, 1995 

W.Bro. LAWRENCE OSCAR WALKER, Prescott 

Central Lodge No. 110, G.R.C., Prescott 

November 21, 1995 

R. W.Bro. WILLIAM EDWIN COLLINS WILSON, Georgetown 

Credit Lodge No. 219, G.R.C., Georgetown 

July 22, 1996 



We give thanks for the privilege of knowing them 
and of sharing in their lives 



309 




Jnslilulfh: Stpitmbtr 21, 1977 
(fluttflitluifb: btpltmhtr 2.3, 197H 

OFFICERS - 1996 

Worshipful Master R.W.Bro. Larry J. Hostine 

Immediate Past Master R.W.Bro. Kenneth L. Whiting 

Senior Warden W.Bro. George A. Napper 

Junior Warden W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 

Chaplain R.W.Bro. Arthur W. Watson 

Treasurer R.W.Bro. Duncan J. McFadgen 

Secretary V.W.Bro. Samuel Forsythe 

Assistant Secretary V.W.Bro. George F. Moore 

Senior Deacon R.W.Bro. P. Raymond Borland 

Junior Deacon R.W.Bro. Carl M. Miller 

Director of Ceremonies W.Bro. David G. Fletcher 

Inner Guard W.Bro. Donald L. Cosens 

Senior Steward R.W.Bro. William C. Thompson 

Junior Steward R.W.Bro. Michael G. Brellisford * 

Historian W.Bro. David G. Fletcher 

Tyler R.W.Bro. Donald A. Campbell 

Auditors R.W.Bro. Kenneth G. Bartlett 

R.W.Bro. M. Keith McLean 



COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN 

Archivist and Curator R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 

Editor W.Bro. John F. Sutherland 

Masonic Information R.W.Bro. P. Raymond Borland 

Librarian R.W.Bro. John Storey 

Finance R.W.Bro. Albert A. Barker 

Membership R.W.Bro. William C. Thompson 

Black Creek Masonic Heritage R.W.Bro. E. J. Burns Anderson 

Liaskas Paintings R.W.Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

Annual Banquet W.Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 

William James Dunlop Award V.W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 

* Deceased 



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PAST MASTERS 

1977 R.W.Bro. Jacob Pos 

1978 R.W.Bro. Jacob Pos 

1979 R.W.Bro. Keith R. A. Flynn 

1980 R.W.Bro. Donald G. S. Grinton 

1981 M.W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw 

1982 V.W.Bro. George E. Zwicker 

1983 R.W.Bro. Balfour LeGresley 

1984 M.W.Bro. David C. Bradley 

1985 M.W.Bro. C. Edwin Drew 

1986 R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop 

1987 R.W.Bro. Albert A. Barker 

1988 R.W.Bro. Edsel C. Steen 

1989 R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 

1990 V.W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 

1991 R.W.Bro. Wilfred T. Greenhough* 

1992 R.W.Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

1993 W.Bro. Stephen H. Maizels 

1994 W.Bro. David G. Fletcher 

1995 R. W.Bro. Kenneth L. Whiting 

* Deceased 



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